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SHROPSHIRE LGS

Locally Important Geological and Geomorphological Sites

Contact SGS and links to other relevant geology sites

LGS Sites

Shropshire Council, on the advice of the Shropshire Geological Society, have selected the following sites on the basis of nationally agreed criteria: scientific value, educational interest and historical importance.

The presence of a site on this list does not necessarily imply open or public access. Please investigate the situation at a particular site (including access by public rights of way and arrangements for car parking) before visiting. The Shropshire Geological Society cannot be held responsible for the accuracy of the information provided or for your safety when visiting the sites listed here.

The full LGS database is administered by Shropshire Council. It forms part of the Environment Record, linked to the County GIS, which may be accessed by clicking here. Currently access to the full database is by prior appointment with the Environmental Records Officer, tel. 01743 252 573.

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RIGS_ID

Grid_reference Locality Feature Stratigraphy Geomorphology Description Access LGS (formerly RIGS) Interest/Category
0002 SO 279 959 Spywood and Aldress Dingle Stream and tracks Ordovician (Upper): various members. These dingles are two of a number of steep gorges in the area that are associated with the River Camlad and its small tributaries. The majority of this site is not accessible by public paths; or even by forest tracks (see next section).  Attempts were only made to find exposures that were along the footpaths and therefore readily accessible without prior permission.  At SO 276 957 where the footpath from 'The Rock' goes steeply down a track to the stream there is an interesting outcrop of steeply dipping beds (photo taken).  These are of the Aldress Shale Formation according to the BGS Shelve Area map.  These dip at about 80° to the NW.  This exposure consists of undulating beds of shales with more massive material above.  This exposure is about 3 m high by 7 m.  If this track is followed to the stream another outcrop can be seen on the other side of the river.  There is no way over the stream but the steeply dipping beds can be clearly seen from this distance.  Another exposure was found at SO 278 959.  This is in the track; again just above the stream and is about 1 m high by 10 m and showed the same sort of shaley material.  There were a few other small outcrops visible along the stream banks and tracks but there was always an access problem. According to ref.1 the exposures are fossiliferous and particularly rich in graptolites with a number of species of graptolites and trilobites being defined from collections from here. The majority of the land within the SSSI boundary is Aldress Shale Formation.  The section only really appears on the map to be up the eastwards trending valley along which there are no footpaths. There is an access problem in this area.  There are supposedly a few footpaths but none appear to be way-marked on the ground.  One was missing altogether and blocked by barbed wire fences and no alternative path through the wood.  The owner is very keen on telling people where they can't go but not on where they can go.  There appear to be few forest tracks along the dingles; so even if permission was sought to leave the footpaths it would be difficult to travel up the streams to find any exposures especially as they are all wooded. RIGS Yes. Already designated as an SSSI Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0003 SO 565 871 Oak Dingle - Abdon Stream/brook Silurian / Devonian boundary; Devonian: Ditton Series (BGS Sheet 166). This is a small dingle cut into the undulating ground between the steep slopes of the Brown Clee Hills and the flat land of the valley of the River Corve.  The high ground to the W of the dingle (that can be reached by a footpath that crosses the dingle) allows a view of the countryside from where these features can be appreciated. Faunal changes through time can be recognised and by comparison with sections of similar age further north a faunal variation controlled by environmental factors can be studied. This is the type locality for a recently discovered species of acanthodian Cephalaspid and an early arthrodire and so is a key locality for studies of fish fauna in the Silurian-Devonian boundary beds. The N/S trending dingle provides an easily traversable way up the stream. The stream flows over many bedding planes which form the flat bed of the stream. There are some exposures in the bank at intervals up the stream that would allow study or possible collection of fish fossils. The ones near the bottom of the dingle were of flaggy and massive red sandstone. The bedding planes in the stream bed did not appear to reveal any fossils to my untrained eye. The SSSI also includes a short section of the mainly E/W trending stream at the bottom of the dingle on the other side of the road. There are few exposures in this section except for the bedding planes in the stream that create pools and waterfalls. This makes this section more difficult to study at periods of high flow. From the Corve Dale road (B4368) follow a series of minor roads to the village of Tugford. The SSSI site is on either side of the road between Tugford and Abdon. The wooded dingle is easily identified on the LHS of the road where the road crosses a bridge. There is no public access along the stream but it is easy to walk up the stream and there is easy access to the stream from the road. There is room to park just E of the bridge. High flow rates may make this site less accessible and harder to study. Obviously permission should be sought from the owners especially for groups. RIGS Yes. This is already an SSSI and appears to be in reasonable condition. Due to the nature of the beds the fossils are not obvious so the benefit to younger students may not be great. This is a type locality. There is plenty of material for study by researchers and the more experienced. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0006 SO 396 876 Hillend Quarry / Hillend Farm (W) - Lydbury North. Track/roadside Silurian: Llandovery Series (Lower): Pentamerus Beds. This site below the steep S end of the Longmynd and just above the meandering River Onny. As per the previous report this site consists of a lot of fine talus and some larger pieces (up to 50 mm across) which are still revealing a lot of fossils and which are from the Pentamerus Beds. To the right of the exposure there is some interesting weathering of iron-rich rocks. The disused excavations behind the fence do not appear to show any more exposures of rock as they are all grassed over and this is private land. This is a road side site so access is no problem. Park by the gate to the E in dry weather or in the lay-by about 600m SW where there is space for a few cars without any danger of blocking access. The exposure is clearly seen on the N side of the road. RIGS Yes. This site is an SSSI and a RIGS. It is an easily accessible site showing a clearly identifiable lithology and has plenty of loose material to study. As it is still revealing fossils and is still accessible it should remain as a RIGS. It was designated as a RIGS to help ensure a continuance of its role as a good introductory locality as well as exposing a component of the Silurian section along the A489 between Hillend and the Cwm Head road. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0007 SO 425 854 Onny River Section Cliff Unconformity between Ordovician (Caradoc: Onny Shales) and Silurian (Upper Llandovery: Hughley Shales) River cliff of meandering Onny River. This is the classic Ordovician-Silurian unconformity. It can be detected in the cliff on the N bank by a subtle change of dip from 22°SE to 18°SE with the Hughley Shales overlapping the Onny Shales. This site remains quite clear of vegetation and access and viewing is easy. It is not possible to cross the river except at very low flows. This is good as it means the faces are less likely to be hammered. Continued erosion by the river at times of high flows will remove some material but this should keep the face 'clean'. Trilobites are sometimes found in the river at low flows. There is a lot of loose material in the form of river worn pebbles of various ages that have been brought down-stream. The SSSI covers the river and its banks from 426852 to 422854. This area includes outcrops which are the type-sections of the Actonian and Onnian Stages of the Ordovician. It is unclear where the Actonian stage finishes and that of the Onnian starts and this junction may only be visible in the river bed at times of low flow. This is found along the Onny Valley walk which is a permissive footpath allowed by the owners of Cheney Longville Estate.  The trail runs from a car park over the railway bridge off the A49 up the Cheney Longville road. It continues along the river and old railway as far as Glenburrell. RIGS Yes. This is an SSSI for its geological importance therefore it ought to be designated as a RIGS. It should be designated as part of a larger site encompassing the whole of the river as outlined in the attached note (Word file name:- Onny Valley Area). Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0010 SO 525 779 Tar Grove Quarry and Tar Grove Dingle Quarry (disused) Lower Old Red Sandstone: Ditton Series. Quarry cut into hillside and stream cutting down through hill. The present SSSI designation is just for the quarry. This is becoming very vegetated with rhododendrons and small trees making it difficult to reach the faces that are exposed.  The main exposure is to the E on the back wall. There is another much smaller one just at the left of the entrance; the beds dip NNW. It shows massive red sandstone separated by thinner bands of fine sst and micaceous sltst some of which have weathered to a green 'chalky' material. One face trending NNW/SSE has a thin covering of calcite.  About 20 m of beds are exposed and the quarry is about 50 m across. The stream sites described in ref.1 are not really accessible as the banks are steep and vegetated. There are no obvious exposures in the stream either side of the track except for occasional small waterfalls. This quarry yields one of the most diverse known assemblages of fossil plants of Gedinnian (Lower Devonian) age consisting of about 20 species of algae nematophytes (primitive non-vascular plants) and primitive vascular plants. The specimens are unusually well preserved and yield information on the cell structure of the plants. The flora is the subject of much active research and is also of historical interest since it was from here that in 1937 W H Lang described specimens which until the discovery of similar material in the Ludlow beds of South Wales was the oldest indisputable evidence of a vascular plant. Thus from the point of view of both its historical interest and its present research potential this site is of great international importance. These sites are on the Downton Hall Estate (along the southernmost drive) and are not on a public path. RIGS Yes. Already an SSSI for the importance of its plant fossils but access is only with permission from the owner (Mr Wiggin at Downton Hall) and is probably best kept to research. Fossils
0011 SO 519 897 to SO 521 893 Upper Millichope (Munslow) Stream/brook Silurian: Lower Ludlow: Lower and Middle Elton Formation. This site is on the NW slope of the NE/SW trending valley of the River Corve.  The other side of this valley is partly made up of the Brown Clee Hills.  The stream eventually runs into the River Corve. The reason for notification as an SSSI is as follows:  This site shows a long stratigraphical section through the Lower Ludlow Lower and Middle Elton Formation with a Lobograptus scanicus graptolite fauna and an acritarch microflora typical of the Tylotopalla pyramidale biozone.  The fauna and flora suggest deposition of the calcareous siltstones here in comparatively deep water conditions.  The macrofauna present consists of well-preserved graptolites trilobites and brachiopods. There are outcrops in the banks of the stream at intervals for several hundred meters up the stream from the bridge by the footpath (see below). These are continually eroding so provide a plentiful supply of loose material in which to find the fossils mentioned. The trilobites are the most obvious and there are still lots of specimens to be found in various states of preservation.  As usual they are dislocated and there appear to be far more pygidia than cephalons.  Some separated compound eyes can also be found.  Because of the abundant material there is NO NEED TO HAMMER at the exposures.  More material can be found under the rotting leaves.  Other fossils found on this visit included gastropods (Loxonema) the occasional graptolite small brachiopods and bivalves as well as the Dalmanites trilobites. The best fossil collecting exposures appeared to be between the first two bridges. This is the most accessible part of the stream and the rock appeared to be more fossiliferous here. Above the next bridge upstream the stream has created more of a gorge which was impassable at the level of flow on this visit. Because of the steepness of the banks it is also difficult to reach the stream level from the road at most places above this bridge.  There are a few places where access is possible but these are quite limited and the rock at the higher levels did not reveal as many fossils. The top of the site looses its interest altogether with no exposures and no 'beaches' on which to find loose material. The rock is siltstone which gets less green and more calcareous upstream. Upper Millichope is on a minor road between the Corve Dale road (B4368) and Wall under Haywood (on the B4371). It is probably best to traverse the stream in an upstream direction as the bottom of the site is more interesting and easier to traverse.  Enter the stream just upstream of the footpath over a bridge opposite a farm entrance.  By walking in the stream it is possible to reach the next bridge upstream with very little problem.  At low flow it may be possible to follow the stream further. RIGS Yes. This is also an SSSI.  It has obvious fossils in abundant loose material which are suitable for use by all groups of all abilities and interests. It would be suitable for school groups or researchers. The site is quite open and easily accessible. Fossils
0012 SO 519 742 Temeside Bank Silurian: Temeside Shales Formation (Pridoli Stage) Exposure in the south bank of the River Teme just downstream of Casemill Weir; directly opposite the Case Mill. A small section of river cliff running along the southern bank of the River Teme. The exposed rocks show a channel-fill within the mudstone and siltstone sequence of the Temeside Shales Formation. This unusual sedimentary feature in these Silurian-aged rocks contains a diverse assemblage of fossil ‘fish’ fragments and larger specimens; which are extremely rare elsewhere. The cephalaspids Thyestes salteri and Hemicyclaspis murchisoni have been recorded from here; as well as several types of acanthodian spine and thelodonts. The site has received little collecting attention in the past; but recently heterostracan fragments; new species of acanthodian; and a graptolite have all been found here. This is a unique site for vertebrate studies with much potential for future research. Access is down steep wooded bank from edge of field leading from St Giles Church car park; Ludford; on private land. RIGS Yes. As this is already an SSSI it should be a RIGS. Fossils
0013 SO 426 807 View Edge Quarries Quarry (disused) Silurian: Ludlow Series: Aymestry Group (BGS SO48; Craven Arms). These quarries have been cut into the top of a prominent scarp created by the resistant Aymestry Beds above the softer Lower Ludlow Shales. Whilst not as spectacular as the near by site at Brandhill this quarry has very clear features and a greater abundance of fossiliferous material.  This site has remained quite clear with only a few stunted trees on a few ledges.  The faces are mostly very accessible and whilst some are obscured totally there is still plenty to see.  There is plenty of loose material containing large shell fragments including what looks like a recently hammered area.  The shells are also clearly visible at certain points within the rock. The quarry is accessed via a gate about 200 m SE of Viewedge Farm.  Park in the gateway or elsewhere along the lane.  There is no public right of way to the faces but there is permissive access negotiated by the AONB; large parties should seek prior permission from the farm at the top of the hill. RIGS Yes. This is an SSSI for their distinctive shell banks of the large strophomonid brachiopod Conchidium knightii. This is a shallow-water fauna which is characteristic of the Aymestry Limestone Group in this area. Fossils
0014 SO 337 990 Shelve Church Bank Ordovician: Mytton Flags Bank surrounding church yard. This site is meant to be a famous exposure of Mytton Flags with fossils from deep and shallow marine environments.  However the site is now overgrown with a pool created on some of the site that is marked as SSSI on the Map I have been give (file reference S/S/36).  It is mostly covered in grass and only one patch of rock shows through (which may be in-situ or part of a wall).  There is no clear exposure of rock so unless this site can be uncovered I suggest it will loose its SSSI status and should not be designated as a RIGS site.  I guess its only use at present is for research purposes by those who are willing to clear vegetation. The church is on the N side of the road in the village of Shelve.  There is room to park just in front of the church gates. RIGS Yes. Already designated as an SSSI Fossils
0019 SJ 318 024 to 317 013 Betton Dingle Stream/brook Ordovician: Llanvirn Series: Stapeley Volcanics to Betton Beds. This is one of several steep sided narrow valley running N off an area of higher ground into the wide and fairly flat NE/SW trending Rea Brook valley. This stream is very vegetated with many fallen trees over the stream and debris causing pools and waterfalls that would be dangerous to wade through.  This in combination with the very steep sides makes this stream virtually impossible to traverse for any distance in either direction.  On this visit an attempt was made to walk downstream from Lyde to Betton.  This was not really possible.  Even on the bits that were reached there was no useful exposures.  The only exposed rock are the bedding surfaces that make up the stream bed and create some of the rapids and waterfalls.  The loose material in the stream was of a variety of lithologies and was very worn indicating that it is likely to have come from upstream and does not relate to the beds in the stream at the point at which the pieces are found.  I did not find fossils in any of the material.  Upstream of the road did not appear to be any more accessible and there was no obvious outcrops in the stream. There is a small exposure at a track junction just off the road and over a cattle grid which shows rusty; very friable beds.  There was also some material exposed in the track that follows the stream.  I did not find any fossils in any of the loose material here. The dingle goes S from Betton Farm.  There is no public access and to walk along the stream appears to be to dangerous to recommend.  Part of the SSSI site is a Shropshire Wildlife Site. RIGS Yes. Already designated as an SSSI Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0021 SO 602 758 to 603 755 Cornbrook Dingle - Coreley Stream/brook Carboniferous: Cornbrook Sandstone Formation. Small stream running down the side of Clee Hill There are a number of exposures along this small narrow (<1 m wide) stream and its steep banks from where it goes under the A4117 to the waterfall downstream of the track at SO603755. These show very coarse sandstones and conglomerates which are usually poorly sorted and sub-rounded. The conglomerates contain mostly quartz clasts but also other lithologies too. The coarsest conglomerates have quartz clasts of up to 30 mm in the largest direction. In some beds the conglomerate bands are of various grades; each one quite well sorted with the intervening rock being medium-coarse sandstone.  Most of the rock has weathered to a rusty orange colour (probably from acid minewater draining the Coal Measures); this can be variable and appears as bands in some of the beds. There are areas of calcite mineralisation seen as thin layers (?slickensides) on some surfaces of the sandstone. At one point the stream has created a deep gorge which is very difficult to walk down but can be traversed around the top. A few outcrops are visible in the gorge below. About 20 m below the track which the stream goes under there is a series of waterfalls (the site of a former iron works). These show more rust coloured sandstone. The first of the falls is the largest with a drop of about 2.5 m (the site of a water wheel) and the second has a drop of about 1 m. There is an exposure of rock on the E side of the stream but again this is not accessible due to the steep sides of the bank. According to ref.1. this site is an SSSI as one of the best exposures (and the type-locality) of the Cornbrook Sandstone Formation (the lowest deposit of Pennsylvanian age). It shows how sediments were deposited on St. George's Land. Good fossil fauna has been found here (especially plants). Coal mine drainage adit daylights here; iron-stained acid minewater can e seen discharging on the left bank above the track. Park on the A4117 opposite the cottage on the N side of the road. The stream goes down hill from the corner of the road and can be paddled or followed most of the way. Alternatively park on the track that leaves the A4117 at SO608758 where it crosses the stream and follow the stream up the hill. Other facilities can be found at Clee Hill village 1 km to the west. RIGS Yes. This is also an SSSI. Although access is good and there is plenty of material to work with the streamway itslef is steep and difficult to follow. The location is the type section for the Cornbrook Sandstone Formation (some have correlated this with the Carboniferous Millstone Grit) containing good sedimentary features. An iron smelter was formerly located here. Coal mine drainage adit daylights here. Petrology and Stratigraphy
0022SJ 342 015 to 357 021 Hope Valley - Worthen Quarry Ordovician (Hope Shales) and Silurian (Llandovery Venusbank Formation). Quarry; stream and roadside exposures along the bottom of Hope Valley. Hope Mill Quarry ( 355021) (as incorporated in the SSSI) used to show Ord/Sil unconformity.  Recent woodland clearance work by the SWT has apparently destroyed what remained of this outcrop.  The quarry still remains and shows massive sandstones and shales of Llandovery series.  These show cross bedding and bioturbation; with some loose material containing fossils.  The stream bed on the opposite side of the road shows steeply dipping Ordovician Hope Shales.  The stream is accessible in places but without wellies it can not be walked to see if it reveals a contact with the Silurian at any point.  On the LHS (S) of the quarry there is a spur which descends to the road.  At its base a very small exposure was excavated to see if this was Hope Shales.  It appeared to be dipping east; and was darker than the obviously Silurian rocks above; but was very broken up.  This would need to be excavated further to see if it was Hope Shales. Also included in this site is the quarry by the bus stop in Hope village. This shows good folding of the Silurian rocks. Smaller exposures of folded Silurian rocks can be seen on the RHS of the road when travelling south. The Quarry is situated on the W side of the Bishop's Castle to Shrewsbury road just N of the village of Hope. It is best to park in SWT carpark or small lay-by; then walk down the road (N) to the quarry.  The road is twisty and without a footpath; therefore quite dangerous.  The stream is accessible  through holes in the hedge in a number of places but its banks are also often steep.  The bus stop site has a lay-by right in-front of it. RIGS Yes. Already an SSSI?  Should be designated if the unconformity can be uncovered.  Designated for the importance of the unconformity between Ordovician Hope Shales and the Silurian Venusbank Formation.  The Hope Shales in the Lower Llanvirnian include their type section.  Boundary includes the Hope Valley SSSI. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0026 SJ 375 023 Snailbeach Mine Mine/adit Ordovician: Arenig Series: Mytton Flags (BGS 1: 25000 Shelve Area). This site is at the foot of some very steep slopes that lead up onto the NE/SW trending ridge made by the more resistant Stiperstones Quartzite over the softer Mytton Flags to the W and Habberley Shales to the E.  The view point on the heritage trail provides excellent views to the N and round to the SW. This was the main mine of the Stiperstones mining district.  Small scale operations continued after the flooding of the lower levels until 1955.  This last mining was for barytes used in the paper and paint industry.  The lower level mining was for barytes; lead and zinc.  This site was deemed unsafe for the local population due to the amount of spoil that was left from the mining operations.  In 1995 a reclamation scheme was completed that has landscaped most of the spoil tips.  There is also a restoration scheme underway to make safe the remaining buildings and encourage interested visitors.  There is now a heritage trail around the site. This scheme has included a patch of spoil to be left to be 'picked over' by geologists etc.  This is what is described as the 'Rock Store' on the interpretive panels that are around the site.  This is an area about 20 m in diameter of exposed spoil.  There are still minerals to be found but; as with all these tips; the most common are calcite; barites and quartz.  There is more material visible in a part of the tip that has remained to make a view point over the site.  However this is likely to be left to become vegetated over time.  This also contains the above minerals but the average size of the loose material is much smaller.  There is no other exposed rock or spoil over the rest of the site. This site is in the village of Snailbeach.  There is a car park by the toilets and village hall that visitors are requested to use. RIGS Yes. Spoil has been left for the specific interest of geologists. Although it is smaller than some of the other tips in the area it is put in context by the rest of the buildings etc of the heritage trail so a better understanding can be gained of the importance of the geology to the area and how it was dealt with. Mineralogy/Petrology
0031 SO 290 995 Kinton Quarry Quarry Ordovician: pre-Lower Llandovery Caradocian dolerite intrusion. nothing particular. This quarry still clearly shows the columnar jointing that is referred to in ref.1.  It is best to the LHS of the quarry where the columns can be seen to curve slightly.  The whole of this quarry has been cut into the dolerite and there looks like there has been some fairly recent excavation; probably by the farmer for hardcore.  Apart from the columnar jointing there is not much else to note. This can be reached by taking the partly unfenced farm track SW from Rorrington.  Or a footpath NW from opposite Middleton Hall Farm (SO297991). The quarry is on the N side of the track just by a cattle grid.  It is fenced off from the road but there is a gate. RIGS Yes. This should be a RIGS site as a good; clear example of columnar jointing at a site that is easily accessible for groups of all sizes. Mineralogy/Petrology
0033 SO 297 758 Black Garn - Chapel Lawn Quarry (disused) Silurian: Downtonian (Platyschisma beds according to the information on the Favoured list). Quarry on the slopes of the steep side Caer Caradoc which is topped by a hill fort. The LHS of the quarry shows a very impressive distortion due to movement along a thrust plane.  The beds have been clearly distorted into tight folds.  The lower set of these terminates next to the plane of faulting.  The distortion is of massive beds 30 to 120 mm thick with fine laminated partings of a few cm.  The beds appear to be competent and have folded together.  I found no fossils on this visit.  The RHS of the quarry is much more obscured (mainly by moss) but the beds appeared to be unaffected by the faulting of the LHS. The adjacent stream section is on private land with no public access.  I could not see any exposures of any size within the stream.  There was one small exposure on the upstream side of the road which showed beds of a few cm thick.  As there is no public access it is probably best to leave these exposures for research use only. This site can be found on a small lane that leaves the A488 at Five Turnings (1.5 km S of New Invention) between Clun and Knighton.  The site is on the E side of the road on a tight bend just E of the entrance to Black Garn Farm.  There is very little parking on the narrow lane but there is a bit of verge at the point of the site. RIGS Yes. This should be a RIGS as a good and easily accessible example of the effects of faulting / thrusting.  The structures are very clear and can be readily explained. Structure
0038 SJ 314 024 Betton Wood Farm Quarry (disused) Ordovician: Llandeilo Series: Meadowtown Beds. This site is near the base of the valley side of the wide and flat NE/SW trending Rea Brook valley area. This quarry consists mostly of one face.  This is mostly massive limestone.  Water seeping through and over the rock has resulted in calcareous deposits at the base of the face.  Ref.1 states that the limestone has been intruded by dolerite but this was not obvious.  To the left of the face the are thin beds of siltstone (<10 mm thick) which have produced a lot of talus.  This loose material is quite fossiliferous with several fragments of trilobite pitted fringe visible.  Some of the pieces are dark and micaceous whilst others are a paler mudstone.  Some bioturbation is evident and there were a few pieces of calcite. Ask permission at Betton Wood Farm.  Take the track up the hill and to the left along a sunken lane.  The quarry is about 300 m from the farm in a group of trees. RIGS Yes. This should be a RIGS as an example of the Meadowtown Beds that can no longer be seen in Meadowtown Quarry.  It also shows a different aspect of the Meadowtown Beds to the quarry at SJ312013.  There is plenty of loose material and the site is large enough for good sized groups. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0040 SO 317 836 Withins Bury Ditches; Clun (Brookbath) Track/roadside Silurian: Cefn Einion Formation; Platyschisma Beds and Downton Castle Sandstone. This track-side cutting is in a small valley on the side of the conical shaped Sunny Hill from which there are good 360° views interpreted with the aid of a toposcope. This site was described in ref.1 as being a 500 m long section showing the above horizons with the Downton Bone Bed (equivalent to the Ludlow Bone Bed) exposed in the banks of a steep ride.  I found a good exposure about 2 m by 30 m on the track-side where it bends around a valley.  This shows massively bedded fine; mica rich; sandstone with beds up to 15 m thick.  Further down the track there is an amount of talus but no in situ rock is exposed.  It is possible that this did show rock at the time that the reference was written.  There is more exposure a few metres up the track where a green way-marked footpath leaves the main track.  The making of the footpath has revealed purple shales which show bioturbation on many of the loose pieces.  One area looked like a badly weathered lump of multiple shell fragments.  Apart from that lump very few fossils were seen. Despite looking quite hard I could not identify a bed which could have been the bone bed.  However the site is still a good comparison to the more flaggy material of the CEF and the very shaley flat bedding of the KC beds.  In ref.1 fossils to be found include Cyathaspis banksi; Sclerodus; Onchus and thelodonts. Park at the Forestry Commission car park for Bury Ditches and make your way around the forest tracks.  This site is where the green waymarked walk crosses a hard-cored track. RIGS Yes. This should be considered for designation in conjunction with other sites in the area that show the different facies within the Ludlow Series and the Lower Devonian (if this site does show Downton Castle Sandstone).  The value of the site would be increased further if the Downton Bone Bed could be identified. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0043 SO 325 956 Tasker Quarry - More Quarry (disused) Ordovician: Llanvirn: Stapeley Volcanics Group and Stapeley Shales. Cut into hillside. Medium sized quarry showing massive interbedded shales; hard tuffs; breccias and other pyroclastics. Some small faults. Fauna includes trilobites and graptolites.  (Ref.1.). It is now fenced off but there is a stile over it.  There is room for one car to pull of the road in front of the quarry otherwise park in the lane to Nind just to the south. RIGS Yes. Designated to emphasise its geological significance as an excellent example of sedimentary features which can be preserved within volcanic sediments. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0045 SO 335 990 Shelve Farm Quarry (disused) Ordovician: Arenig Series: Mytton Flags. Quarry cut into bank. Abundant loose material from the Mytton Flags and the face is easily accessible.  Fossils were found in this material and there is a bentonite band (ref.1.).  Fossils previously found here include trilobites; graptolites and gastropods. The farmer is quite willing to let people get at the site but permission must be sought first at the house.  Access is either through the buildings or round the top of the farm.  Park in the road; or at the farm. RIGS Yes. As the SSSI at Shelve Church (337990) is no longer visible this is a good alternative. This quarry is now behind a relatively new barn and has possibly been reworked in order to fit this building in.  Access is easy and there is abundant material.  It is described on my list as a 'classic locality'. Fossils
0046 SO 368 987 Stiperstones (main ridge) Crag Ordovician: Arenig Series: Shelve Group: Stiperstones Quartzite. Frost shattered tors on long high NNE/SSW trending ridge formed by resistant quartzite flanked by less resistant shales. This site comprises a series of frost shattered tors with classic 'stone runs' (associated boulder screes that have formed stone stripes as a result of solifluction).  There are boulders of various sizes and textures from conglomerate to fine quartzite.  Some have quartz veins running through them occasionally showing well formed quartz crystals.  There are good views from here across to Corndon Hill in the west and down towards Linley in the south.  It is also a very good point a which to look north up the ridge where other tors can be seen on a good day. A footpath climbs to the ridge from the Bog to Linley road from the large car park at the southeast corner of the area. RIGS Yes. The Stiperstones ridge is the best site in the country for stone runs and displays well the variability of the Stiperstones Quartzite from fine grained to conglomeratic together with evidence of mineralisation in the form of quartz veins. Geomorphology/Landscape
0047 SO 351 964 Stiperstones (The Rock) Crag Ordovician: Arenig Series: Shelve Group: Stiperstones Quartzite. Frost shattered tor on long high NNE/SSW trending ridge formed by resistant quartzite flanked by less resistant shales. This is one of a series of frost shattered tors which associated boulder scree which outcrop on top of the Stiperstones ridge.  There are boulders of various sizes and textures from conglomerate to fine quartzite.  Some have quartz veins running through them; occasionally showing well formed quartz crystals.  There are good views from here across to Corndon Hill in the west and down towards Linley in the south.  It is also a very good point a which to look north up the ridge where other tors can be seen on a good day. A short path leads directly to the rock from the Bog to Linley road.  There is no parking here so it is best to walk down the road from the Nipstone car park about 1 km to the N. RIGS Yes. This should be designated either on its own or as part of a larger site which incorporated all of the Stiperstones ridge. Designated for its display of the variability of the Stiperstones Quartzite from fine grained to conglomeratic and evidence of mineralisation in the form of quartz veins.  The site is also a good view point from which to appreciate the context of the Stiperstones ridge to the north. Geomorphology/Landscape
0048 SO 352 764 Gripes Nest - Hopton Quarry (disused) Silurian: Bailey Hill Formation. Large quarry cut into the slope of a small valley separating Bedstone Hill and Hopton Titterhill. This is quite a large site about 20 m high and 30 m wide.  It is mostly greenish grey micaceous siltstone but with calcareous nodules and some bands of finely laminated pale or orange sandstone.  There are several slump features causing folds and changes of dip direction.  The overall dip is about 10°W.  The central outcrop shows the slumping well with an obvious large scale change in dip and folding picked out by light and dark banding.  A large nodule in the exposure to the left and above the central outcrop has caused deformation of the beds beneath.  Uneven laminations could be seen on a small scale in many of the loose pieces that cover the lower slopes in many parts.  Few fossils were found but there was a lot of bioturbation evident on the surfaces of the talus and other features such as small ripples. It can be reached from the village of Bedstone either by walking from there or by following the lane signed  to ' Darky Dale' for about 1.4 km than taking the lane to the R down into the valley.  Park opposite the top of this lane and walk down then follow the unsigned footpath across the stream (no bridge) and over some fields.  The footpath the site is on is connected to the forestry commission trail of Hopton Titterhill.  Parking is therefore available at the car park for this trail but this is some distance away.  (It is suggested that a copy of the mountain bike trail is obtained for further reference). RIGS Yes. This is a good open site suitable for parties of all sizes.  It is on a footpath so access is easy once the path is located!  The slump features are easily recognized as is the bioturbation. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0051 SO 357 970 Stiperstones (Nipstone Rock) Crag Ordovician: Arenig Series: Shelve Group: Stiperstones Quartzite. Frost shattered tor and boulder scree on prominent NNE/SSW trending ridge. This tor is separated from the main Stiperstones ridge to the north by a fault running up the intervening depression (BGS Shelve Inlier map 1:25000).  It is now even prominent than before as the Forestry Commission (with English Nature and the SWT) have felled the conifers that were at the bottom of the slope to the W and some of those behind the tor to the E.  They have also cleared the small scrub trees that were growing all over these slopes as part of the 'Back to Purple' campaign.  The steeply dipping beds of the quartzite can be made out although it is confused slightly by the strong joints that run at 90° to the bedding and a second set that run 90° to the first set.  This jointing pattern is the same as described for the other tors on the ridge.  Along the ridge (S) from this tor there is further piles of bolder scree (and in-situ rock) in which pieces of the beach conglomerate can be found.  There are pieces with a range of textures from poorly sorted coarse conglomerate (with sub-rounded quartz pebbles of a up to 10 mm in diameter) to the main blocks of the tors which are fine grained.  The conglomerate also contain pebbles which are of other material such as purple Longmyndian sandstone.  Quartz veins can be found in many of the pieces some of which show well formed (if small) crystals. From the top of the ridge there are views all round such as W to Mitchells Fold and Corndon; S down the valley towards Lydham and N up the rest of  the Stiperstones ridge. Also there is a fenced off area which is marked on the BGS map as a shaft.  This is cut down into the quartzite to a depth of about 15 m.  It is conceivable that the W end of this excavation stops against the Mytton Flags which form the slope below the quartzite ridge.  It is not possible to tell this for certain as the shaft is fenced and has very steep and therefore dangerous sides.  Outside the fencing there is a small patch of gravel type material that looks much like the mine waste at the Bog Mine.  This could have been a tip from this shaft and contains minerals such as quartz; calcite and barite. There is a car park just below the outcrop on the E side of the Bog to Linely road.  There is a footpath that passes round the base of the tor and continues along the ridge. This path is not on the Explorer map (216) but is signed on the ground just up the track from the carpark. The shaft is off the path but at present it is easy to get down the slope. RIGS Yes. This is a good site with mining interest as well as the frost shattered tor.  It has easy access and carparking and (on a good day!) has good views to the other tors. Structure and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0052 SO 357 978 Bog Mine - Stiperstones Mine/adit Ordovician Mine workings below the Stiperstones ridge. This site has been partly reclaimed and re-vegetated (with limited success) with some of the mine waste being removed by farmers for hardcore.  Some of the mine buildings are still standing along with many more foundations.  The waste tips are still evident and the white minerals (barite calcite and quartz) are still very much in evidence especially where erosion has revealed new material.  There are information panels here explaining the mining and therefore much of the geology. Large car park with information board and mine buildings; about 2.5 km south of Stiperstones village (where there is a pub!).  In summer there is a shop and excellent tea room operating at the old school; this also serves as a field centre. RIGS Yes. This is an important mine site and one of the most which are accessible to the general public.  There are some minerals to be found and it already has interpretation in place. Mineralogy/Petrology
0062 SJ 390 046 Poles Coppice - Pontesbury Quarry (disused) Ordovician: Arenig Series: Shelve Group: Stiperstones Quartzite (BGS Shelve Area). This site is on high ground towards the N end of the SW/NE trending ridge made by the resistant Stiperstones Quartzite that continues from the Stiperstones.  To the N is the low undulating ground of the edge of the North Shropshire plain. The main quarry (and the only one with an obvious path into it) is very large; about 200 m across and 20 m high.  However there is a lot of scrub on the quarry floor and some up the faces at either end.  There is a clear patch in the middle of the quarry but the view of it is still becoming obscured by the trees.  The faces are very steep and there is a lot of loose scree at the foot of them that makes it difficult to reach the in-situ rock.  The bedding is almost vertical (dip W) and is slightly undulose in places.  It is difficult to determine the grade of the quartzite in the different beds without hammering sst the faces.  The loose material indicates that the quartzite ranges from very fine to coarse.  There are very few thin siltstone bands between the quartzite beds.  There is one obvious fault towards the top of the face.  Above the fault the rock has iron rich staining whilst the beds just below can be seen to bend up as an affect of fault drag.  There are tips of quartzite 'rubble' all over the floor of the quarry amongst the trees.  There are two other smaller quarries in the vicinity (as marked on the OS Pathfinder map). Neither of theses are accessible but the 'black route' through the nature reserve pass between them and allow a view down in to them. These quarries are within the County Councils nature reserve area and can be reached by following their colour coded paths.  The nearest car park is the one at the N end of the reserve which is reached from Pontesbury. RIGS Yes. This is a good site which demonstrates the nature of the Stiperstones Quartzite with some faulting.  It is a large site with easy and access close to centres of population and suitable for large groups. Structure and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0063 SO 390 858 Edgton Farm (Dunslow) Bank Silurian: Ludlow Shales. The exposure is at the base of a steep scarp slope of a small ridge running NE/SW.  From the top of the scarp there are good views of the surrounding hills including the Stiperstones ridge Corndon the Longmynd Caradoc the Clee Hills and Bury Ditches. The exposures are mostly on the banks of a track to the left of where the Shropshire Way climbs the scarp slope of the ridge. The outcrops themselves are obscured slightly by lichen and moss but they generally are not overgrown so the structure is clearly visible. They show thinly bedded siltstone which is calciferous in places but doesn't appear to contain any calcareous nodules. The beds dip gently to the SE and are usually 10 mm thick or less. Graptolites are plentiful and are found in various states of preservation. They can be found in the abundant loose material which lines the track. Other fossils such as orthocones can also be found but these seem to be less common. There are also small exposures in the lane that the footpath follows from the road. However these are quite vegetated and only really suitable for research purposes. From Edgton follow the Shropshire Way south through a few gates. The public path climbs the steep scarp slope up the fence line but the exposures are on the track that bends to the left. Park on the road in Edgton. Or there is lots of space at the village hall on the west side of the village if the gates are open. RIGS Yes. Designation as an easily accessible safe place to study rocks of a graptolitic facies. It provides a good comparison to the areas of Edgton Limestone in the area and also with the other graptolitic siltstones at the west side of the village. There are also good views from just a bit further up the path making it an interesting geomorphological site. Fossils
0064 SO 382 831 Burrow Hill Fort - Hopesay Crag Silurian: Ludlow Series (undivided W of C/S fault; BGS Sheet 166). The hill fort has been built on the higher summit of a two-summit ridge.  There are good 360° views of the surrounding countryside. There are several small outcrops (max of a few metres in each direction) incorporated into the banks of this impressive hill fort. The ones found on this visit were at the SW end of the fort in the vicinity of the highest point.  They showed flaggy uneven beds of siltstone (<10 mm to 50 mm thick) dipping at about 20° to the S.  There was not much loose material by the outcrops but near the S entrance to the fort there is an abundance of loose scree.  This proved to be unfossiliferous but a few pieces showed some bioturbation.  The view from the top is very good.  Because the fort area has not been forested there is a clear view of 360° (only obscured by a few old oak trees).  This shows all the local hills and as far as the Clee Hills Caradoc etc.  Along the tracks that run below the fort to the west there are further outcrops partly exposed due to the recent clearance work in this area.  These mostly show thinly bedding siltstones dipping gently to the S.  However at GR 379831 (just by a track junction) there is an abrupt change of dip (from about 10°S to 45° and more to the E); disturbance and jointing of the beds.  This would appear to be a fault zone as the structure is lost for a few cm.  Despite the enormous amount of loose material that covers the tracks in places there is very little evidence of fossils.  The rock is quite micaceous in places. There is no public path to the hill fort but there are tracks through the surrounding woodland that lead to the fenced off fort.  The easiest of these to follow are up the W side of the hill.  These fork off of a path that follows the Shropshire Way from Hopesay.  Park in Hopesay. RIGS Yes. RIGS designation particularly for its view of the surrounding countryside.  There is also some interesting (if small outcrops) with possible faulting. Geomorphology/Landscape
0067 SO 417 792 to 418 790 Brandhill Quarry - Onibury Quarry (disused) Silurian: Ludlow Series: Aymestry Group (BGS Sheet 166). A very impressive set of faces from which there is a good view W down the valley towards Clungunford. As described in the previous report this is a very striking site.  It is still very open with very little coverage of the faces by vegetation.  Despite the almost horizontal bedding it is possible to reach about 2/3 of the exposed beds due to the undulations of the ground directly in front of the faces.  There is some loose material in which fossils can be found. This is next to a bridleway and not fenced off from it.  However permission should be sort from the owners at Brandhill Farm.  There is no parking except along the verges. RIGS Yes. The assessment states that ‘Brandhill Quarry warrants RIGS designation if only for the aesthetic quality of its situation and architecture; it is however a significant locality in the context of the diachronism of the Aymestry Limestone facies.’ Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0068 SO 448 837 Top of Halford Wood Spoil heaps Silurian: Ludlow Series: Aymestry Group Spoil heaps are on top of a small scarp slope formed from Aymestry Limestone. 360 degree views around Shropshire including Clee Hills; Stretton Hills; Whitcliff; Clun Hills; down to The Malverns and west  to Radnor Forest. Spoil heaps made up of very fossiliferous; nodular Aymestry limestone each about 4m high. Heaps are stable.  Calcified fossils include several types of brachiopod and crinoid.  Disused quarry as marked on Pathfinder map is no longer discernible.  Great views as described above. Via public footpath from west of Whettleton Pool (444830) about 750 m up scarp slope. Heaps and views are just of the path beyond the top of the wood. RIGS Yes. The landscape views are the best showing geomorphology of Shropshire. Plus some fossils and rocks showing nature of Aymestry limestone which makes up the scarp you are on. Geomorphology/Landscape
0071 SO 512 741 Ludford Corner Cutting (road/railway) Silurian: Ludlow Series;  transition to Pridoli Series. Roadside cutting on junction Exposure of thin beds (<50 mm) of siltstone. Transition from Silurian to Pridoli; formerly considered to be Devonian. Plaque at base (behind bench) tells of Murchison's interest in the Bone Bed. This is now backfilled but had become a deep slot due to excavation for fossils (an exposure has been deliberately left free from burial 50 m up the road by the speed limit sign). Main exposure is on the junction of Richards Castle road and Whitcliffe road.  It continues up both sides for about 50 m but space is restricted and the road is very busy. This was once the classic locality for the Ludlow Bone Bed. On junction of roads. Parking for two or three cars in minor road opposite RIGS Yes. As part of a designation that covers the whole of the Whitcliffe Common area. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0072 SO 288 742 Lurkenhope - Stowe Quarry (disused) Silurian: Ludlow Series. This site is on a road which follows a steep sided; narrow; v-shaped valley. The main quarry site has become very overgrown with brambles and small trees.  This along with the amount of loose scree on the steep slopes makes it very difficult to reach the higher outcrops.  The lower parts of the quarry are more accessible and show massive bedded units up to 600 mm thick with thin shale partings.  The lower parts appear to be more massive than the higher beds which are of a more flaggy nature.  At the top of the quarry there are notable strong sub-vertical joints trending almost N/S. The exposure continues SE along the NE side of the road.  A wide verge makes this an easily accessible and safe place to study.  The most obvious feature is the fault zone; just to the right of the quarry; that separates beds dipping about 20°NW with from others that are almost horizontal.  The fault zone contains very broken and distorted beds.  On the rock exposed closest to the road and at ground level there is a covering of calcite along one plane.  A lot of the loose material in this area shows degrees of calcite mineralization.  To the right of the fault zone the rocks appear to form a very flat syncline.  In these beds the sedimentary features reported in the previous report are clearly visible in the almost cyclic bedding of massive siltstone beds separated by a few cms of fine laminated siltstone.  A few fossils were found scattered in the siltstone with the occasional bedding plane having a covering of brachiopods. This site is on the A488 Knighton to Clun road.  It is found on the NE side just on the bend N of the farm at Lurkenhope.  Parking is possible on the wide verge infront of the outcrop although this can be very soft in wet weather. RIGS Yes. Designated for its accessibility and usefulness for large groups to study features associated with sedimentation (cyclic features resembling turbidites) thin layers of allogenic fossils and structural features of faults and folds.. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0074 SO 271 768 Selley Hall - Llanfair Waterdine Quarry (disused) Silurian: Ludlow Series (BGS Wales 1:250000 Quarry cut into top of small ridge. This exposure is in two parts.  To the E two faces of massive sltst with some more shaley partings; join at an angle of ~80°.  The beds to the S of this junction seem to dip more steeply than those to the N (about 30° and 20° respectively).  This could be due to the affects of faulting.  These faces are about 6 m high.  The planar bedding is cut by a series of joints some of which may be small faults.  There is a large amount of loose material of all sizes.  The loose material contains some small brachiopods; bivalves and one orthocone septum was found.  To the west of the quarry the rock appears more shaley is a continuation of the beds to the S of the junction.  Again there is abundant talus beneath this outcrop but no fossils were seen and the rock was paler. Exposure is part of an eroded anticline the other limb of which is on Selley Hill. Follow the bridleway (straight ahead) through the gate on RHS of the road about 300m up the hill from Selley Hall.  The quarry is on the R as the path bends round beneath it.  As the site is not actually on the path permission may be needed for access by groups.  There is room to park in the gate-way but it is muddy. RIGS Yes. Easy access from road; good sized exposure with abundant loose material.  Designated as an exemplary example of a breached anticline (erosion having removed the cracked and weakend rock on the crest of the anticlinal fold). Structure
0075 SO 322 732 Tournett - Stowe near Knighton Quarry (disused) Silurian: Upper Ludlow Series Quarry cut into roadside bank/cliff on edge of River Teme floodplain. Large quarry up to 10 m high. Thinly bedded (shaley) siltstones dip into hillside.  Further exposures occur along the road towards Weston for about 200 m.  Some parts badly weathered and distorted by tree roots.  Lots of loose shaley material but few fossils found.  (M.Allbutt:- 'Orthocone; graptolites expected).  Some; but very few; calcareous nodules within the shaley bedding. Bucknell to Knighton road past on RHS past Weston. Bucknell 3.75 km. Restricted parking; one car might fit in quarry but it is very muddy. Narrow road RIGS Yes. Good outcrops with some fossils. Very good structure in parts.  Large enough for good sized group except lack of parking. Fossils
0083 SO 348 759 Bedstone Hill - Bedstone Quarry (disused) Silurian: Cefn Einion Formation. Quarry has been cut into the side of the hill above a very steep narrow valley. This is a square sided quarry with three faces up to about 6 m high and 10 m long.  The left and right hand faces trend N/S whilst the back face is at 90° i.e. trends E/W.  There is a lot of rubbish which obscures about half of the back face.  The other faces are clear and accessible.  The rock is mostly flaggy siltstone / fine sandstone with some more massive beds.  There are a few beds of finer lithology that are obvious as units about 60 mm thick.  The RH face is the more interesting as it is less flat than the other so provides a section showing the dip of the bedding as well as faces parallel to the strike.  There is some spheroidal weathering and mm scale laminations can be seen in some of the units on this side.  Fossils were quite numerous in the abundant loose material but their source in the in-situ rocks was not apparent as obvious fossiliferous bands. This site is along one of the many forest tracks within this plantation.  In Bedstone village take the left hand turn to Mynd; then take the first turning left signed 'Darky Dale'.  This road can be followed for about 1.4 km until a track leaves to the left at a 'cross-roads'.  Park here if it is clear that there are no forestry operations in the area.  Follow the rack to the left.  The quarry will be seen on the LHS of the track after about 400 m.  It is fenced off from the track as the faces are vertical at this point.  Go through the trees beyond the quarry to reach the entrance.  It is also possible to park at the end of the metalled road where several paths meet or at the Forestry Commission car park at Hopton Titterhill but that then requires a long walk to reach the site. RIGS Yes. This site has some interesting material and is a fossiliferous and accessible example of the Cefn Einion Formation.  However the rubbish does present a hazard that should be removed.  If this was cleared the site would be suitable for reasonably large parties. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0085 SO 358 777 Hopton Park - Hopton Castle Quarry (disused) Silurian: Bailey Hill Formation. This quarry is cut into the bottom of the steep sided Hopton Titterhill above the undulating valley which can be seen to the NE. This quarry covers a large area and is reminiscent of the spoil tips of a Welsh slate mine.  Most of the area is covered in loose material of all sizes up to several feet across.  There a few in situ exposures.  One of these (about 3 m by 10 m) is found at the top along a track that continues directly up the hill into the woodland.  Here it shows units 100-150 mm thick of dark siltstone and fine sandstone.  The rocks of the outcrop look fairly uniform in terms of lithology as do the loose pieces.  The loose material shows a good number of features that indicate these are turbidite beds.  These include tool marks and flute casts as well as other evidence for scouring.  Unfortunately on this visit no distinctive marks could be found on the many in situ bedding planes visible to indicate a direction of movement.  Other pieces showed mm scale laminations and light and dark banding.  There was occasional evidence of calcite mineralisation with some surfaces having a covering of calcite. No fossils were found. From the B4367 Craven Arms to Bucknell road take the RH turning at Hopton Heath and turn immediately left to Hopton Castle.  Park at the far end of the village and follow the unmarked path through three gates and follow the track on to a forth at the bottom of the wood.  The quarry is directly S of the gate into the wood on the next track up.  Either follow the track round to the left or take the short cut straight up the bank in front of you.  This site is also on the Hopton Mountain Bike trail route; post No.8. RIGS Yes. It has an abundance of material showing various surface features such as tool marks (on all scales). There is loose material to study as well as in-situ rock. Potential for finding such nicely 'sculpted' rocks. The site is big enough for the largest of groups and has relatively easy access. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0138 SO 413 775 to 415 777 Swan Hill (Shrops) Quarry (disused) Silurian: Ludlow Series: Aymestry Group. Quarried limestone makes a prominent feature on the side of this wooded hill.  It forms a V on the map as it crosses the small valley down which the road runs. The main exposures of this quarry are to the left of the gateway with the largest face being about 25 m and 10 m high.  There are other faces surrounding this lower quarry which is used for turning and parking of forestry vehicles and the storage of timber.  The faces show very nodular limestone some of which are picked out by red algal growth.   The beds appear to be quite uniform all the way up but due to the vertical nature of the faces and the very gentle dip only the bottom beds can really be studied at this point.  The nodules are a fairly uniform size throughout this area of the exposure.  There is some siltstone this seems to be evenly spread throughout the faces as thin bands around the nodules rather than discreet layers at intervals separating the layers of limestone.  There is little loose material beneath the faces in this lower quarry but there are pieces in the tracks which show the nodules to be made up either as single lumps of colonial corals or combined fragments of other fossils.  If the upper forestry track is followed there are more exposures as are marked on the pathfinder map.  These show a slight change in the lithology through higher beds.  It is still nodular limestone but is less regular and the 'beds' of limestone begin to look slightly thinner as the nodules are more elongate.  In one small quarry where the track levels out there is a distinct band in which large Kirkidium knigtii and other fossils including large colonial corals can be seen in the rock face.  On the other side (N) of the road there are further exposure showing the same things as the lower quarry on the S side.  Here the land surface allows a greater number of beds to be studied (if to limited extent).  There is quite a bit of loose material here although a lot is hidden under the ground vegetation. These quarries are situated on a minor road between Shelderton and Onibury.  They are marked on the Ludlow OS Pathfinder map No. 951 (SO47/57).  The main quarry is on the S side of the road (on the R when travelling up hill from Shelderton).  Parking is limited to the verges which are a reasonable width in places but can be quite soft.  The quarries on both sides of the road are fenced off and the gates are padlocked.  Care must be taken if there is any sign of forestry operations.  If the owner is identified it may be possible to negotiate parking in the quarry? RIGS Yes. This should be designated as a RIGS as it is quite an easily accessible site; suitable for large parties and showing the nature of the Aymestry Group.  There are plenty of beds to study and loose material in which to find fossils.  With the exposures along the track and on the other side of the road studies can be made of vertical changes in deposition and lateral changes to a limited extent. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0144 SO 418 778 Shelderton Rock Quarry (disused) Silurian: Ludlow Series: Aymestry Group. Quarried limestone makes a prominent feature on the side of this wooded hill.  It forms a V on the map as it crosses the small valley down which the road runs as well as a few other small quarries in the hillside of which this is one. This site is the lower of two quarries that lie on the road just above the larger quarry of Swan Hill to which the comparisons are made.  This site shows limestone that is still nodular but the nodules are more elongate and there is a higher proportion of siltstone that gives it a more flaggy appearance.  The loose pieces (often more silty than limestone) are stacked with small shells (10 mm and less) rather than being lumps of coral or large brachiopods.  The faces are about 10 m high and many beds are accessible with care.  The rocks dip gently E.  On one face there is a calcite covering which is probably due to infilling of a joint.  The calcite has been given a red colouration by algae. This quarry is situated on a minor road between Shelderton and Onibury as marked on the Ludlow OS Pathfinder map No. 951 (SO47/57).  The quarry is on the S side of the road (on the R when travelling up hill from Shelderton).  Parking is limited to the verges which are a reasonable width in places but can be quite soft.  This quarry is fenced off from the road with barbed wire and there is no gate or any other practical way in except to climb the fence.  Most of the faces can be seen from the road.  Care must be taken if there is any sign of forestry operations. RIGS Yes. This should be a RIGS in conjunction with the site at Swan Hill just below it and Shelderton just above to give a good section through these horizons through which obvious changes in depositional environment can be seen. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0158 SO 453 794 Onibury - Hale Bank Quarry Quarry (disused) Silurian: Ludlow Series: Upper Ludlow Shales. (Previous report; Lower & Upper Whitcliffe Group). Quarry cut into the bottom of the valley side above the meandering River Onny (with river terraces) which has created a wide valley through which the road and railway run. The previous report covers everything I noticed on this visit as far as the actual geology is concerned.  The quarry is becoming overgrown since it was last used for the storage of equipment during the upgrading of the A49.  Some of this equipment still remains along with a lot of blocks of concrete pipes and other material.  A lot of this has become overgrown making it difficult underfoot. The faces themselves are still quite clear except for the RH end which is covered in brambles etc.  There are some spreading trees on ledges on the back wall which will obscure quite a lot in the summer.  The vegetation on the floor of the quarry has also obscured a lot of the loose material.  However there is some loose material just outside the gate in which fossils can be found.  On this visit abundant Rhynchonella were found along with colonial coral and one trilobite pygidium and a cephalopod septum.  Also in this material there was evidence of calcite mineralisation. This site is accessible off the A49 just N of the level crossing at Onibury.  There is not really room to park in the gateway so park in Onibury village.  The gate is padlocked but a small path in the vegetation the other side suggests regular use by people on foot. RIGS Yes. Provides a section in Lower and Upper Whitcliffe Formations allowing direct comparison with the standard section at Ludlow. The quarry also provides a logical culmination to the A49 road section previously designated as a RIGS. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0178 SO 505 746 Dinham Quarry - Ludlow Quarry (disused) Silurian: Ludlow Series: Whitcliffe Formation. Large quarry cut into base of Whitcliffe; behind Clive Cottages The largest E-W trending face of the main quarry is about 150 m long and ~25 m high.  Beds dip very gently to the NW looking almost horizontal in the main face but overall the dip of the Whitcliffe Beds here is 10° towards the north-north-west (consistent with its position on the northern flank of the Ludlow Anticline).  Fine calcareous sst and sltst.  Bedding sometimes undulates and is uneven and/or discontinuous.  Fossil bands can be seen in the faces e.g. one that is 30 mm thick about 1.3 m off the quarry floor to the left of the centre of the main face.  Fossils such as brachiopods and bryozoans are also to be found in the loose material at the base of the faces.  Some cross-bedding on a mm scale can also be seen within a lot of the beds. Spheroidal weathering is apparent in places. There are further exposures that reveal the higher beds in the sequence.  These are above and to the E of the main quarry.  They show similar features including trace fossils and bioturbation on some of the loose material. Two prominent volcanic ash bands about one third of the way up the main face. In medieval times this quarry was owned by Bromfield Priory and operated on their behalf. Park at Dinham Bridge.  The quarry is on the left hand side of the road leading up to Whitcliffe and is reached via a small path just before (and on the opposite side of) the caravan park (behind Clive Cottages) RIGS Yes. It is a very impressive quarry which is easy to access and relatively safe for parties of all ages and sizes.  It could be combined with other Whitcliffe sites. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0196 SO 305 839 Colstey (Bury Ditches W) Quarry (disused) Silurian: Cefn Einion Formation. Quarry and exposure at side of track that runs down to small river running between Colstey Wood and Red Wood. The small quarry has a total height of about 5 m and a length of 7 m along the E/W exposure. At the base the beds tend to be flaggy but they become more massive towards the top.  They are siltstone and fine sandstone.  Some pieces of loose material contain abundant fossils including several brachiopods and one large Serpulites was found.  There is some undulose bedding and the beds appear to dip about 20°W.  There are further exposure in the bank on the RHS of the track below the quarry towards the stream.  These beds can be seen behind the brambles for about 10 m.  As the track bends and crosses the stream there is an exposure on either side of the stream.  The one to the right (NW) of the stream is the better exposure as it is less vegetated.  This is about 5m x 10m and shows massive units up to 150 mm thick and more flaggy units only 10 mm thick.  The bedding surfaces appear uneven and in-filled burrows are visible on the surfaces of some of the loose material; with the in-fill being paler than the surrounding rock.  Very few body fossils were found here except one bit of an orthocone.   The rocks of the other side appear to be much the same but are covered in moss; lichen and scrub. There is another small exposure on the track running down next to the stream but this is small and access is more difficult due to brambles and loose material underfoot. This is along one of the many forest tracks in this area.  The nearest parking is at the Colstey Wood entrance.  The site is down the main track past the barrier.  Alternative parking is at the Forestry Commission Carpark for Bury Ditches.  This is further from this site but is a larger carpark and allows easier access to other sites in the Bury Ditches area. RIGS Yes. This should be a RIGS in conjunction with other sites in the Bury Ditches are to show different facies within the Ludlow Series. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0198 SO 313 819 Croveats Lane - Clun (NE) Bank Silurian: Downton (Ludlow Bone Bed) according to ref.1. The path climbs the steep sided Radnor Wood and gives good views back over Clun and the hills that surround it. This exposure reveals the Bone Bed towards the top end.  This is revealed as black layers (totalling about 80 mm in thickness) that are obviously different from the surrounding layers.  The loose pieces show some of this very dark material to be of very broken fragments covering pieces of more silty rock.  They also show other features that may be fish fossils.  The total exposure is about 0.5 m high and 7 m long.  The other layers appear to be unevenly bedded flaggy siltstone which dip at about 5°SW.  The surrounding loose material also contains a few small pieces of red medium grained sandstone.  Gastropod fossils were found in some loose siltstone blocks. Ref.1 states this as being a site for Thelodus parvidens fauna Cyathaspis Sclerodus and acanthodian. Park in the Community Area car park in Clun and continue up the road on foot past the Youth Hostel until the footpath branches off over the field to the right.  Follow this path and then the track up the sunken lane. Pass through two gates. The site is on the LHS just beyond the second gate where the path goes through a very low 'cutting'. RIGS Yes. This is perhaps the most easily accessible exposure of Bone Bed outside Ludlow so gives a better understanding of this important marker horizon. There are fossils to be found in the path and the dark fragmented material is quite clear in the exposure. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0199 SO 314 851 Acton Bank - Lydbury North Quarry (disused) Silurian: Cefn Einion Formation. This quarry is cut into a small isolated ridge trending NE/SW on otherwise flat land at the junction of several valleys. As described in the previous reports there are three quarries at this site.  The first is mostly behind a barn and therefore is not very accessible but clearly shows flaggy bedding.  Along the footpath is the next and most accessible of the outcrops.  This shows more massive beds which dip gently south and which are up to 200 mm thick.  Some of these show internal laminations.  There are some flaggy beds of just 10 mm thick.  Over the surface of the face and in some of the joints there is a weathered clay-like material containing clasts of many sizes.  There is a large amount of debris in front of this outcrop - the larger pieces of which show the uneven nature of the bedding surfaces.  To the left of this quarry the outcrop continues for several 10's of meters but it becomes less accessible.  Here the bedding is again more flaggy in nature with beds of just a few cm's in thickness. The site appears to be quite stable but there are some overhangs which obviously should be avoided. This site is to the east of the public footpath that runs along the side of Acton Bank from Acton. It is at the beginning of the path where it crosses the first stile. Park in Acton or on approach but avoid blocking gateways. M. Allbutt suggests asking at the farm but it is not clear which building in Acton this is.  Permission should be sort for study of the quarry behind the barn as this is not on the footpath. RIGS Yes. Suitability for teaching purposes (including large groups) for study and interpretation of faulting and sedimentary features; in particular the development of slump structures relevant to its position on the Silurian shelf/basin margins. Structure and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0200 SO 315 874 Colebatch (W) - Bishop's Castle Quarry (disused) Silurian: Bailey Hill Formation. This is cut into a sharp slope just above a small meandering stream. This quarry shows interbedding of massive and shaley units with a steep dip to the SE.  The lithologies include dark quite micaceous fine sandstone siltstone and a few pieces of rich brown mudstone.  The massive units are about 150 mm thick and are separated by thicker units of the more shaley material.  This interbedding follows quite a regular pattern.  The beds tend to be quite uneven with some large nodules and spheroidal weathering in places.  There is some deformation of the LH end of the mainly NW/SE trending face.  The total exposure is about 8 m high by 30 m and most of the beds are accessible at some point. There is an abundance of loose material that lies in the bottom of the quarry and where there has been some recent excavation. This shows some bioturbation but no fossils. Much of if shows very rusty weathering and many display an oily looking sheen. Turn W off the Bishop's Castle to Clun road in Colebatch.  After about 300 m a footpath follows a track to the right and over the stream.  The quarry is visible beyond the gate in the field.  Park on the verge just before the track or in Colebatch.  Other facilities can be found in Bishop's Castle. RIGS Yes. RIGS designation due to its suitability for teaching purposes giving access to large groups for study and interpretation of (probable) turbidite sequences and related sedimentary features. In the context of a position on Silurian shelf/basin margins comparison with near-by Acton Bank is particularly relevant. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0202 SO 322 834 Stepple Knoll (N) Quarry (disused) Silurian: Cefn Einion Formation. This forest track runs up a small valley on the side of the prominent; conical shaped hill.  The toposcope on the summit gives a guide to the good 360° views of the surrounding countryside. This excavation is now covered in young fir trees which are growing amongst the loose material on the bedding surfaces.  Some of the rock is still unobstructed and the structure of the beds is visible even through the trees.  The rock is very broken and blocky.  It dips about 20°NW.  The bedding planes are quite undulose in places.  Some fossils were found including brachiopods and ostracods but I did not find any of the shell coquina reported by M. Allbutt.  The quarry is about 50 m long (including vegetated areas to either side of the main face) and a maximum of about 5 m high.  There are no dangerous overhangs. Park at the Forestry Commission car park and take the lower track marked with a red banded post.  Follow this track until a tight bend in a small valley.  At this point take the grassy path down the stream to the track below which you should follow to the right.  The quarry is just up the slope to the right where this track meets another. RIGS Yes. Part of the larger RIGS site that takes in other sites in the Bury Ditches area as they show how the rocks change throughout this part of the Ludlow Series. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0203 SO 325 831 Stepple Farm (N) Quarry (disused) Silurian: Knucklas Castle Formation. This is a quarry on the side of a valley at the base of the conical shaped Stepple Knoll and Sunny Hill. This curved excavation is about 4 m high by about 40 m.  It shows the characteristic flat; shaley; laminated; bedding of the Knucklas Castle Beds. The beds appear to dip gently WNW.  There is most loose material on the RHS (E) a lot of which shows an oily sheen on many of the surfaces.  On the LHS there is less loose material and the structure is more readily apparent.  Some of the debris shows there are some quite mica-rich band within this horizon.  This is a very open and safe site with easy access to all the beds. This site is just off the public footpath that runs from Bury Ditches to Stepple Farm.  It is best to park in the Forestry Commission carpark and walk along the waymarked tracks.  The footpath runs around the top of this excavation. RIGS Yes. To be considered as a RIGS site in conjunction with others in the Bury Ditches area to show the different facies that were in the area during the Ludlow Series. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0204 SO 325 834 Bury Ditches (SSW) - Dawes lines - Lydbury North Quarry (disused) Silurian: Cefn Einion Formation? Track runs along contours around the bottom of the prominent; conical shaped hill.  Toposcope on the summit gives a guide to the good 360° views of surrounding countryside. An outcrop that runs along the track between two small quarries (SO329836 to the E and SO325834 to the W).  The beds are a few cm thick (compared with mm's thick to the east).  Some beds are more calciferous and these have more rounded weathered edges than the more shaley beds.  These more massive beds are interbedded with fine shaley beds.  Some fossils were found but the fauna is still quite sparse. Allbutt describes this as being a transition between the shaley KC beds and the more undulate and flaggy CEF. In the western quarry the beds are obviously thicker than they are at other sites to the east.  A calcareous nodule was on the floor and there are others in the quarry face. The beds appear to dip NW.  Fossils are evident on the bedding surfaces of the yellower; more sandy pieces. These consist mostly of small brachiopods. The exposure that has continued along the length of the track from the car park to the east finally peters out just before the track reaches the small valley and bends around tightly. Park at the Forestry Commission car park and follow the lower track with the red banded post. The quarries are about 1 km along this track. Stay on the upper of the two track where there is a choice. RIGS Yes. As part of RIGS to include all the sites in the Bury Ditches area which show the different facies of this part of the Ludlow Series.  Designated ‘as showing a continuous section through the transition between two principle rock formations of the area.  It specifically demonstrates the effects of shallowing of a depositional basin whereby pelagic and oxic sediments become overlain by incoming traction sediments with concominant changes in lithology and fauna. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0206 SO 329 836 Bury Ditches Clun (SE) Track/roadside Silurian: Knucklas Castle Formation. Track runs along contours around the bottom of the prominent conical shaped hill. Toposcope on the summit gives a guide to the good 360° views of surrounding countryside. This is a small excavation (3 m high x 10 m) in the bank of the track-side.  Here the bedding is mostly thin but there are some more massive units.  There is some strong jointing and some more calciferous areas. Rock is exposed in the track-side for most of its length.  The exposures are only ever a metre high at the most and are often less. However walking along the track you can get a good a good feel for the structure of this thinly bedded siltstone. The beds tend to be on a mm scale and are rarely more than 10 mm thick. The angle of dip appears to vary slightly as does its direction.  M. Allbutt suggests there is a flat anticline visible in this section. There is lots of loose material along the track but this is very broken and consists mostly of pieces just a few cm in the largest direction. The beds get slightly more massive towards the SW end of this section at a small quarry (see SO329836). No fossils were found in any of the loose material along this section. Park at the Bury Ditches carpark and take the lower track marked with a red banded post.  The exposure is on the N side of this track just at the fork of two tracks. RIGS Yes. To show the progression through the various horizons of the Ludlow Series. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0207 SO 329 838 Bury Ditches Clun (E) Quarry (disused) Silurian: Cefn Einion Formation. Quarry in ditch of hill fort which is on top of Sunny Hill. From the top there are great views interpreted with the aid of a toposcope. This is a small pit in the inner ditch of the hill fort.  A lot of the pit is covered in grass but there is still a clear exposure on the back wall.  It shows siltstone dipping gently to the west.  M. Allbutt mentions areas of diverse fauna but only a few small brachiopods were found on this survey.  A lot of the loose material that may have been around here is covered in grass but there is still sufficient material to be found. On the track back towards the main car park a tree has fallen over revealing a large amount of loose material beneath its roots.  This is a pile of recently exposed (and therefore quite 'clean') flaggy siltstone containing a few fossils. Park at the Forestry Commission carpark for Bury Ditches and follow the main track up to the hill fort.  The site is over the stile and to the right of the E entrance to the fort. RIGS Yes. To be included in the RIGS of this area; very close to the car park and to the summit which is good from a geomorphological point of view. Geomorphology/Landscape
0215 SO 349 872 Stank Lane quarry - Lydbury North Quarry (disused) Silurian: Bailey Hill Formation. Quarry is cut into the slope near the top of the valley side overlooking Lydbury North and over to Bury Ditches. This quarry is now becoming very overgrown with nettles and wild roses.  The faces are still quite clear; despite a few patches of grass growing on ledges; but not very accessible.  The deformation and slump folding of the rocks has produced elongated blocks of rock.  The folds themselves are still very visible in the exposure.  There is abundant loose material some of which contains lots of fossils whilst others just contain a few brachiopods or bryozoans. This site is to the N of Stank Lane directly north of Lydbury North.  It is behind a barn used at present for straw storage.  The quarry itself is fenced off from the surrounding field.  There is no public right of way through the field. RIGS Yes. On account of its exhibition of the Bailey Hill Formation of ref.1 near the eastern extremity of its range; for the clear demonstration of small scale slump structures pertinent to its position on Silurian shelf/basin margins and for the wealth of its fossils’ M. Allbutt's assessment. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0217 SO 352 811 Purslow (W) - Clunbury Quarry Silurian: Bailey Hill Formation. Small quarry on lower slopes of wide valley of the River Clun. The quarry is about 5 m high by about 20 m which trends NNW and shows mostly massive beds of fine dark grey sandstone and siltstone.  There is a lot of loose material many pieces of which show closely packed and aligned tool marks or uneven bedding surfaces.  Other pieces show an oily sheen.  There is one area which may show a possible fault.  This is a 1.5 m wide vertical region of very broken rock and clay-like material where the structure seen in the rest of the face is no longer visible.  Some areas have been stained by iron rich deposits giving them a rusty appearance.  The faces seem fairly safe with just a few areas where there is a thick soil overhang. Since the previous report of 1997 this quarry has been much extended. Dips range from zero to 45° towards the SE quadrant. The BGS sheet shows a dip arrow of 11° to SSE. What was previously taken as evidence of slumping is now abundantly confirmed as due to large scale slumping combined with two instances of smaller 1 m scale slump folds verging to the SE. In detail one of these shows that slumping is the cause of a millimetre scale corrugation of bedding surfaces examples of which are prolific amongst the talus. This quarry provides another exposure of slumped Bailey Hill beds in the eastern part of Ref 1; see cross-referenced reports This Quarry is on the N side of the B4368; Clun to Craven Arms road about 750 m west of Purslow.  It is open to the road and at present allows plenty of space for parking. RIGS Yes. RIGS designation because this offers the most accessible local exposure of slumped Bailey Hill beds which offers the opportunity to study slumping (typical of this horizon) and possibly faulting. However as a ‘working quarry’ one would wish to avoid any possibility for conflict with owner/occupier. Structure and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0218 SO 353 834 Kempton (NW) - Clunbury Quarry (disused) Silurian: Bailey Hill Formation. Quarry in the ridge that forms the NE slope of a small valley. This is quite an impressive almost circular quarry now used as a dump for tyres and fencing.  Despite the rubbish a lot of the floor is quite clear and many of the faces are easily accessible.  The highest faces are about 10 m high but some are covered in trees and scree.  Slump bedding is visible especially on the face to the NW of the entrance.  Here the beds are contorted into tight folds.  The area of folding is quite obvious as it has weathered differently to other areas.  Other faces show areas of flat; continuous bedding but which has bowed down slightly in the middle over a distance of a few meters.  The bowed beds are a few cm thick with more massive units above and below.  There is a lot of loose material on the RHS of the entrance some of which shows slight bioturbation.  Some of the faces and talus slopes are quite unstable but there is plenty of safe areas to study. Park at Kempton (there is a lay-by by a telephone box on the B4385) and take the footpath that goes up the valley towards Lodge Farm.  The quarry is on the RHS of the track just before a cattle grid. RIGS Yes. RIGS because of its several examples of well-formed slump bedding of a quality which would allow quantitative measurements to establish the direction and inclination of the palaeoslope on which they occurred  This is also a very easily accessible site showing features that would be of interest to people of most knowledge levels. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0222 SO 378 815 Oaker Wood (S) - Hopesay. Quarry (disused) Silurian: Ludlow Series (upper; ref.1). Quarry at the end of an elongated hill with two summits; the northernmost and highest of which is topped by Burrow Hill Fort giving 360° view of the surrounding countryside. A large quarry with clear open faces showing units of siltstones up to 2 m thick dipping about 20°SE.  The beds get thinner towards the top of the faces that are about 30 m high and 60 m wide.  There is quite a lot of loose material which shows some bioturbation and some fossils.  The fossils (brachiopods) are patchy with some loose pieces showing a lot on the bedding surfaces whilst others only show a few.  The beds themselves appear to be featureless.  To the LHS of the quarry entrance there is an area under an overhang that shows beds apparently dipping to the N; it looks like a shallow syncline.  However there also appears to be a fault zone in this region which may have caused some disturbance of the dip.  The floor of the quarry is covered in low vegetation and some rubbish.  The faces are also covered in places by brambles ivy and small trees but there is access to the base of the faces.  There is no access to higher up the faces as they are vertical. This site is just to the N of the B4368 about 1.3 km W of Aston on Clun.  It is along a footpath which is also a track so vehicles can reach the quarry although permission should be sought for this.  There is a piece of wire that has been put across the entrance but this is the only barrier. RIGS Yes. This is the type-locality of Salopina lunata. Capable of accommodating large groups and shows bedding typical of this horizon. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0258 SO 397 865 Ridgeway Hill Quarry Silurian: Ludlow Series: Edgton Limestone (BGS Sheet 166). Quarry is cut into the end of a 'hogback' ridge which runs NE/SW.  There are good views from this ridge especially up the Stretton Valley to Caradoc and the Lawley. At the LHS of the quarry there is a metre or so of deformed nodular discontinuous beds belonging to the Edgton Limestone that pass up into flatter more continuous calciferous siltstone beds.  Also in this area there appears to be a fault with fault beccia.  The dip is generally in a SW direction.  Due to the way the quarry has been cut this results in on face being a bedding plane.  This clearly shows the sub-vertical N/S trending joints which are mostly in-filled with calcite. There is abundant evidence of calcite mineralisation and there are good pieces to be found amongst the loose material.  At the back of the quarry there is a banded region showing paler more calciferous beds inter-bedded with darker ones.  The paler beds have weathered to a yellow colour and often contain a lot of small solution hollows.  No identifiable fossils were found on this visit. This is on the junction of three paths the shortest of which leaves the Edgton to Horderley road opposite Ridgeway Farm. One path continues along the ridge from which the good views can be seen. Park on the verge or in Edgton. RIGS Yes. This is an impressive quarry which may have been reworked recently as there is a large pile of loose material in the centre; this should be avoided as it looks quite unstable. There is plenty of loose material elsewhere. Designated as a RIGS as an easily accessible site of this 'limestone' as a comparison with other lithologies in the region and for studies of calcite mineralization and faulting.  It is a definitive location of rock of Wenlock age west of the Church Stretton fault and is a superb viewpoint for a landscape developed from the underlying geology. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0275 SO 406 855 Smeathen Wood Track/roadside Ordovician: Caradoc: Harnage Shales. Small excavation in hollow next to ridge formed by harder Hoar Edge Grit. This is a track-side excavation mainly for the purposes of research (mostly W.T. Dean of Cardiff University).  It consists of three 'bays'.  The eastern most one is the largest and shows the best structure of this rock which is predominantly siltstone.  Some bedding planes are extremely fossiliferous with brachiopods; trilobites; crinoids; ostracods and bivalves all present.  The specimens are diminutive and fragmented.  There is evidence of folding with at least one anticline seen by Allbutt  There is a small old highly vegetated excavation where the track begins to rise up the ridge to the west.  It is possible that the rock here is HEG and a possible transition between the two can be seen. Continue NW from Cheney Longville for about 1.5 km.  The excavation is down the RH track that leaves the LHS of the road.  Parking is limited to the verge which is very muddy. RIGS Yes. RIGS since the rich fauna which is obtained therefrom has great value in the research of ostracodes and early chordata Fossils
0278 SO 408 871 Horderley - Edgton Natural exposure Silurian: Wenlock Series: Edgton Limestone (Equivalent to Wenlock Limestone and Tickwood Beds) or calcareous Wenlock Shales? (BGS SO48; Craven Arms 1:25000). Exposure above track on S side of River Onny where spring emerges from hillside. This is an exposure above the track that crosses the Onny River at Horderley.  It extends for about 20 m along the track and is about 3 m high.  There are two lithologies present.  There are siltstone bands and much paler bands which are calciferous siltstone; verging on limestone.  The softer fawn coloured bands are bounded by very thin (2 mm) harder layers.  Some of the rock looks very pale and chalky whilst others are covered in rust staining indicating iron rich rock.  There is some loose material which is generally less broken and fissile than that across the road at GR SO408874 indicating a change of lithology between the two sites.  This could be the transition between Wenlock Shales and Edgton Limestone.  There was some very bioclastic limestone pieces but these could be from the hardcore used on the track although they are found quite high up the bank.  Few other fossils were found in the rest of the rock. This site is on the RHS of a footpath that leaves the A489 at Horderley and crosses to the S side of the River Onny.  It is about 50 m along this path from the road. RIGS Yes. This is an easily accessible safe site that demonstrates a change in lithology and is close to other sites so providing a 'story' for an itinerary.  Suitable for small groups. Transition between Silurian Wenlock Shales and ‘Edgton Limestone’ as mapped by BGS circa 1964.  The latter is now better regarded as the Edgton Limestone member of the Aston Mudstone Foramtion of the later BGS Sheet 165 of 1994.  Boundary also includes a site of active tufa formation along old river cliff. Fossils
0283 SO 410 852 Longville Plantation (S) Quarry (disused) Ordovician: Caradoc: Chatwall Sandstone and Chatwall Flags (transition). Cut into bottom of steep sided hill. About 85% of this quarry is now covered in vegetation; mostly brambles and small diameter trees some of which have fallen over.  The best exposures are on the back wall which shows steeply dipping beds.  There appear to be localised changes in dip with the beds near the top looking almost horizontal.  Some of the cleaner faces show characteristic purple banding in massive sandstone.  Some other layers show much thinner beds of finer material.  There is a lot of loose material on the floor of the quarry which show a number of features including: bioturbation; worm burrows; flute casts; slickensides and ripple marks. The site has been noted for the transition between Chatwall Sandstone and Flags and haematite staining in certain areas (Allbutt). A lot of the lower slopes look quite unstable and the upper beds cannot be reached safely at present. Follow the permissive path through the bottom of the wood from the entrance on the road about 750 m NW of Cheney Longville.  The quarry is situated on the left hand side just before the path reaches the stream at the bottom of the hill.  Park at the entrance. Other facilities in Craven Arms. RIGS Yes. RIGS for the following reasons: ‘the stone is Chatwall Sandstone and whilst many quarries for this stone can still be found (none working) the purple banding is rare.  This quarry does however contain strata with this banding.’ Mineralogy/Petrology
0289 SO 412 851 High Wood (N) (Longville Plantation south) Quarry (disused) Ordovician: Caradoc: Chatwall Sandstone. Quarry cut into bottom of steep sided hill. The beds of Chatwall Sandstone dip gently to the SE and are generally quite massive but with fossil lenses clearly visible at intervals up the section.  Some evidence of slickensides can be seen on loose material to the LHS; fossils can also be found in this material.  The bedding planes don't appear to show as many features as those at Longville Plantation RIGS (SO410852). The faces are partly obstructed by brash and waste plaster that has been dumped.  However the faces to the L are easily accessible. There is much more loose material and some exposures extending about 100 m on the other side of the stream.  This site is presently used as a storage site but the rock is still accessible behind.  The talus shows some sedimentary features and fossils but the structures of the exposures especially to the W end is much less clear. Fork left in Cheney Longville past the castle and take the footpath that goes NW over a stile and along the fields.  The quarry is in the wood on the right; off the path and through another gate. RIGS Yes. Combined with the existing RIGS in Longville Plantation (SO410852). This is a large excavation with faces about 15 m high. It is very accessible and big enough for large groups (especially if brash is removed). It also seems more stable than the other quarry. A good example of the lithology of and fossil coquinas within the Chatwall Sandstone of the Ordovician. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0290 SO 412 861 on list (SO 411 861 in ref.1) Onny Valley Quarry (disused) Unconformity between Ordovician (Caradoc: Hoar Edge Grit) and Precambrian (Longmyndian). Quarry cut into steep river bank. Exposure of the unconformity between the Ordovician and the Precambrian.  This is seen in a small weathered-out exposure at the top right of the outcrop above the steps.  The contact between the HEG and the weathered sandstone of the Longmyndian can be made out.  It is overhung by soil and tree roots. The rest of this quarry is in HEG which has some good beds showing current bedding and solution hollows in the more calcareous layers.  The beds dip steeply to the SE and their structure is very clear. This site is at the W end of the Onny Valley trail and is reached quickest from the footpath that leaves the A489 at Glenburrell.  However parking is better at the other end of the trail in a car park off the Cheney Longville road. RIGS Yes. Designated as part of a larger site encompassing the whole of the river as outlined in the attached note (Word file name:- Onny Valley RIGS). Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0293 SO 413 859 Smeathen (ESE) Quarry (disused) Ordovician: Caradoc: Chatwall Sandstone. Quarry on top of the bank above the river. This quite a large (80 m x 50 m) but very shallow (2 m) quarry.  There is not much exposed in situ rock.  Most of the surface is covered in loose material which shows hummocky bedding; ripple marks and bioturbation.  At the S end there is a deeper pit which exposes steeply dipping; almost vertical beds.  They curve over towards the top which will be an affect of faulting associated with the Church Stretton (F3) fault that runs just to the E of this site. These beds are a continuation of those seen by the Glenburrell railway bridge (413860).  The rocks in the quarry are sandstones and some siltstones.  The quarry is quite grassy in places and there is some rock which is alien to the site which has been dumped here. From the Onny Valley path go over the Glenburrell railway bridge.  The quarry is in the field to the left up the track just before it turns to tarmac.  Permission should be sort or the gate climbed.  Alternatively it can be reached down the track leaving the road NW of Cheney Longville at GR412855.  It is possible to park where the track turns to grass. RIGS Yes. Designated as part of a larger site encompassing the whole of the river as outlined in the attached note (Word file name:- Onny Valley RIGS). Mineralogy/Petrology
0301 SO 415 859 Horderley Quarries (Milestone) - Wistanstow Quarry (disused) Ordovician: Caradoc: Chatwall (Horderley) Sandstone. Quarry at base of hillside above main river valley. As per M. Allbutts report (RIGS report).  This site is very overgrown in the quarry back from the road and the brambles and scrub on the bank make it difficult to reach.  There is plenty of loose material within the quarry which is fossiliferous and shows sedimentary structures.  The roadside face is still quite clear but could become overgrown. This site is on the N side of the A489 about 2 km west of the junction with the A49.  There is plenty of room to park on the wide verge in front of the newly painted mile stone. RIGS Yes. Type locality for Horderley Sandstone; part of a large site taking in the Onny Valley trail (see attached note).  Reasons for designation: a) ease of access to strata with a rich fossil content and good sedimentary features with much use made by visiting local geological groups b) as a major source of the distinctive local building stone. Mineralogy/Petrology
0304 SO 419 849 Cheney Longvile (W) - Wistanstow Cutting (road/railway) Ordovician: Caradoc: Cheney Longville Flags. Road side exposure as road climbs steeply. The exposure at the above GR is badly weathered but this does help to pick out different lithologies (different grades of sst and siltstone dipping SE).  There are some local distortion of dip at the top due to the affect of tree roots.  Changes are easy to see so would be good for a mapping or logging exercise except it is on a nasty bend.  There is some loose material but not very much and no fossils were found in it on this visit. There are more exposures all along the road up the hill; travelling west. These show a variety of bedding thickness from <10 mm to 200 mm.  (Don't mistake the dry stone wall for outcrops!!).  This must pass down through the series of Cheney Longville flags and will include some alteranta Limestone (according to the 1:25000 Craven arms map).  A small shallow quarry is cut into the LHS of the road near the brow of the hill (414853) which is in Chatwall Sandstone.  This shows flaggy sandstones again with no fossils being found on this visit. These are all on the road heading west out of Cheney Longville.  Park in Cheney Longville where the road is wider; or in the gateway of Longville Plantation at the top of the hill.  All other facilities can be found in Craven Arms. RIGS Yes. The first GR given is already designated as a RIGS mainly as the de facto type section for upper Cheney Longville Flags.  The whole of the road from Cheney Longville west to the beginning of the Longville Plantation is included in this designation. The road includes two stratotype localities according to the list I have been given (418849 and 418851).  It gives a good section through the Cheney Longville Flags (including alternata Limestone) and into Chatwall Sandstone.  The east of the village it is mapped as Acton Scott Group and if an exposure of this could be found on the road it would extend the story further. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0305 SO 418 857 (SO 418 856 in ref.1) River Onny (railway) Cutting (road/railway) Ordovician: Caradoc: Alternata Limestone Railway cutting. The exposure itself is obscured by vegetation but the structure (SE dip) and lithologies (flaggy siltstone and micaceous sandstone along with the limestone lenses) are still discernable. This is a very small exposure in a shallow cutting of the old railway. There has been a sign here but this is illegible and the post is no longer in the ground. There is still plenty of loose material that shows fossils both as casts and still calcified. This can be reached either along the permissive path that follows the old railway track from Cheney Longville car park along the footpath that leaves the A489 at 417858 or from the other end of the permissive path that leaves the A489 at Glenburrell.  It is best to do the first of these as this is where there is best parking. RIGS Yes. Designated as part of a larger site encompassing the whole of the river as outlined in the attached note (Word file name:- Onny Valley RIGS). Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0309 SO 421 855 River Onny (A) Cliff Ordovician: Caradoc: Acton Scott Group. River cliff cut on outside bend of meandering river. Here the beds of the Acton Scott group can be seen dipping 25°SE.  They are overlain by coarse river gravels.  When the river has high flow (as it did on this visit) it is impossible to reach the 5 m high cliff without waders.  It can be seen from the 'beach' just up stream but the structure is not very apparent from this distance.  Undercutting by the river has made the overlying gravel fall to the river level and slightly obscure some of the structure. Also at high water levels the 'beach' mentioned in ref.1 is mostly covered.  Some of the pebbles from upstream can be found including some less worn ones which contained fossils. This is reached off the footpath that runs along the river and over a stile in the fence that just serves to reach this locality.  Park at the carpark on the road to Cheney Longville.  The footpath runs from here. RIGS Yes. Designated as part of a larger site encompassing the whole of the river as outlined in the attached note (Word file name:- Onny Valley RIGS). Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0310 SO 421 857 Horderley Quarries (SE) - Wistanstow Quarry (disused) Ordovician: Caradoc: Chatwall (Horderley) Sandstone Alternata Limestone and Chatwall Flags. Quarry cut into base of hill side above valley floor. As per report of M. Allbutt  This area is becoming overgrown by brambles but the main features can still be seen.  The beds are breaking up at the soil surface and some distortion has occurred as blocks have fallen out of the face.  The quarry off the road is vegetated with small trees and a lot of ivy which is covering the faces.  There are further small outcrops along the road both to the west and the east of this site. This site is on the north side of the A489 about 1.5 km from its junction with the A49.  There is room to park on the verge and the faces are easily accessible if a bit loose.  All other facilities can be found in Craven Arms. RIGS Yes. Incorporated into a large site taking in the Onny Valley trail (see attached note).  Designated as marking the transition from Ordovician Chatwall Sandstones through the Alternata Limestone to Cheney Longville Flags with good accessibility and all detail in situ.  (the only other comparable site is at Soudley Quarry) Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0338 SO 444 811 Norton Camp Wood Quarry (disused) Silurian: Ludlow Series: Aymestry Group Quarry cut into top of scarp slope.  Gentler slope below of Lower Ludlow Shales. Quarry runs for several hundred metres along the top of the scarp.  Bedding structure is easily seen in the flat faces trending N-S.  Predominantly grey crystalline nodular limestone separated by siltstone partings.  Uneven bedding at base of tallest face in sst.  Some vertical jointing.  Fossils to be found in abundant talus. Ref.1 mentions A. reticularis; Spaerirhynchia; Strophenella and C. knightii in various layers. Some calcite veining.  Brachiopods calcified and created solution hollows. Southernmost end easily accessible at junction of bridleway and footpath from A49 at Lower Park.  Otherwise accessible from footpath that runs along  top of scarp.  Parking on lanes at start of footpaths or in Craven Arms.  All other facilities available in Craven Arms. RIGS Yes. Structure easily visible.  Different lithologies noticeable indicating different facies.  Zoning of fossils.  Good access and big enough for larger groups.  Good for excercises such as logging. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0344 SO 447 822 Norton Camp Wood scarp Quarry Silurian: Ludlow Series: Lower Ludlow Shales or Aymestry Group. Excavated along track on scarp slope of ridge below earthworks. Quarry extending about 70 m along track; 4 m high.  Well bedded lmst and fine sst and sltst.  Bedding structure more visible down track (S) than in quarry itself.   Some of the lmst very crinoidal (to N) more brachiopod rich to S.  Lots of talus containing various fossils.  Further small exposure on R of track-side continuing up the track towards the Camp.  Could find transition from Lower Ludlow Shales to Aymestry Group along this track with further investigation? Easy access along footpaths from Craven Arms.  All other facilities in Craven Arms. RIGS Yes. Shows changes of dominant fossils in different layers.  Structure visible in places.  Easily accessible on footpaths and would link with other exposures such as quarry at 444811 Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0354 SO 453 856 Moorwood Scarp - Strefford Wood Quarry Silurian: Wenlock Series: Tickwood Beds and Wenlock Limestone Series of quarries cut into top of scarp. View from this scarp to the higher one formed by rocks of the Aymestry Group. Series of quarries running along the top of the prominent scarp just west of Moorwood.  Show the top of the Tickwood Beds and base of Wenlock Limestone.  Largest is about 10 m high and 70 m long (to the R of Forestry Commission sign); shows bands of nodular lmst separated by siltstone partings less than 10 mm thick. Some layers show red staining.  Some jointing.  Not obviously fossiliferous but some fossils can be found in loose material.  Smaller quarries (2 m high) lie to the L (SW) of the sign.  The beds here are thicker towards the base and there is a smaller proportion of silly bands.  More loose material with more abundant fossils.  Good place for a logging exercise. Easy access off Lower Dinchope to Westhope road at Moorwood. Parking in the lane.  Large area in front of main quarry if key for barrier can be obtained.  Vegetation makes access to the smaller quarries difficult. RIGS Yes. A good sized site with obvious structures (even to those who know nothing of geology) and changes in lithologies.   In combination with other sites down the scarp it allows a good understanding of the rocks of the Wenlock Series.  Very easy access and the one large face is good for larger groups. Structure and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0376 SO 479 864 (also 482 863) Upper Westhope (S) Quarry (disused) Silurian: Ludlow Series: Aymestry Group Quarry cut into side of steep scarp slope. Quarry with a max height of about 10 m shows at the base well bedded limestones lenses (20-50 mm thick continuing laterally for 2 m or more) separated and surrounded by sltst (individual beds <10 mm thick).  Some of the lmst appears very fossiliferous but fossils are very broken (mostly crinoids?).  Lmst becomes more nodular higher up the section but is still the dominant lithology.  Towards the top siltstone becomes dominant with beds of fine sst.  The top beds of the section are inaccessible due to the steepness of the faces.  The easterly dip means a lot of different beds are accessible at the foot of the faces.  There is some loose material; more may be found beneath the brambles and other vegetation. A good site for exercises such as logging. Accessible along bridleway from Westhope village next to a good sized carpark (476862).  The walk along here takes about 15 mins. RIGS Yes. Good structure with change in lithologies throughout the section.  Dip means lots of beds are easily accessible.  Easy access with relatively parking nearby.  Fossils can be found. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0403 SO 287 860 Cefn Einion - Mainstone Quarry (disused) Silurian: Cefn Einion Formation (probably equivalent to Lower Ludlow Series) Large quarry cut into hillside Impressive large quarry (50 m by 20 m) showing good bedding structure with dip 15° SW.  Beds only accessible from the quarry floor except at far S side (see later). Generally internal structure is very difficult to spot but current bedding visible in fine sst at centre of back face. Other areas weathered into cm blocks.  Weathering picks out different lithologies in the higher beds.  Little loose material is visible but there would be more beneath vegetation etc. at the foot of the faces.  There is a unofficial path up the south end from the road which leads up to higher beds.  These are generally thinner (20-50 mm thick).  Still fine sst and sltst but with possibly fewer fossils.  Very fine shaley partings which are not laterally continuous. (Allbutt:- ‘Surely type locality for Cefn Einion Formation’). Private quarry which is fenced off; situated on R of road heading N from Clun.  Cottage immediately to the left was empty at the time of this visit.  Path at south end is not fenced.  Room for a couple of cars to park at the bottom of the drive to the cottage. RIGS Yes. Type Locality.  Important in recent re-mapping and interpretations of this area (Allbutt).  Good for large groups.  Can access top and bottom to give understanding of changes. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0413 SO 274 981 Whittery Quarry - Chirbury Quarry (disused) Ordovician: Caradoc: Whittery Volcanics and Shales. Quarry is cut into the top of the steep sided Marrington Dingle which has been cut down by the River Camlad. The main feature of this quarry is the contact between the volcanics and the shales; can be appreciated from a distance.  The shales are thinly bedded and lie above the much more massive units of the volcanics.  The quite steep westerly dip of the beds can be seen in the shales at the far LH side of the quarry.  Here they can be seen to fold under the overhang created by tree roots.  The volcanics are seen along the strike and there was a constant leak of water out of the rock presumably following the bedding surfaces.  There are a few other small outcrops of the shales and volcanics around the quarry but most of it is fully vegetated.  The main face has kept clear due to the steepness at which it was cut. From Chirbury take a small lane just SE of the village off the A490 towards Hagley.  Follow this up a steep hill and round a sharp bend.  The quarry is below the road (W) just after a small gap in the woodland on this side.  Park in the nearby enlarged gateways and follow the footpaths down to the site.  One path leaves the road to the N of the quarry the steep faces of which are not fenced off from it so care must be taken! RIGS Yes. Clear demonstration of the conformable nature of the volcanics and the shales. This site is FULL of rubbish which makes access to most of the main face impossible.  Steep loose banks make access to the rest very difficult.  However despite the rubbish that makes close inspection impossible there is plenty to be gained from a distant look. (also see new report in addeenda section below) Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0508 SO 356 998 Bergams Corner - Worthen and Shelve Quarry (disused) Ordovician: Shelve Group: Mytton Flags and intrusive dolerite. On bend in road with views north to North Shropshire Plain and closer to steep valley sides e.g. Mytton Dingle (due to faulting?). This quarry face about 15 m high predominantly consisting of very dark Mytton Flags. However in the extreme top right corner is the dolerite intrusion as marked on BGS Shelve Ordovician Inlier map (1:25000).  This is a much stronger rock and has weathered to a brown colour.  The loose material it produces looks slightly different to that produced by the Mytton Flags.  The face is very steep and covered in loose scree which makes reaching the top difficult but the difference in lithology can just about be made out from the lay-by.  The sedimentary rock here does not appear to contain any obvious fossils. It is on the inside of a tight right hand bend between Tankerville and Stiperstones Village.  There is plenty of space to park in front of the exposure.  Other facilities can be found in Stiperstones Village. RIGS Yes. This has also been designated as an SSSI and as the rock is still clear and easily accessible. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0509 SO 359 928 Norbury Quarry Quarry (disused) Silurian: Llandovery Series: Pentamerus Sandstone (BGS Shelve Inlier; 1:25000). Small quarry cut into edge of valley bottom. The quarry itself is on private land and is in poor condition (very overgrown and containing quite a lot of rubbish).  There is a bit of loose material; a lot of this shows a dense fauna either just on one surface or (more often) in a dense bands a few cm thick.  Most of the fossils are just left as casts as the shells have dissolved.  In the in situ faces this results in a line of solution hollows that indicate where the main fossil bands are.  There are some signs of calcite mineralization. The quarry is in a private field but there is a good if small (0.3 m high x 3 m long) exposure on the road side where there is a small pull-in just by the quarry about 20 m E of the gate.  This shows the beds dipping very gently to the S and has clear fossil bands in it. There are further small exposures in the road side towards Norbury (where stone walls are built of this material) and plenty of loose material can be found along the verges. The hillside rising to the north of this point is supposedly the site of Roman hushings whereby lead was mined by sluicing with water ponded at the top of the hill (based on rills revealed by aerial photographs taken with strong low angle light). The quarry is situated on the N side of the road.  The field is private so permission must be sought before entering the quarry (until his death in 2006 this was from Mr Edwards at the farmhouse within Norbury village).  There is room for one car to park just E of the field gate; otherwise park in a larger lay-by just along the road on the RHS towards Norbury or in the village itself. RIGS Yes. This is the classic location for the famous ‘Government Rock’. The site gives a clear indication of the nature of the local unconformity between Silurian and Precambrian sediments. The hillside rising to the north of this point is supposedly the site of Roman hushings whereby lead was mined by sluicing with water ponded at the top of the hill. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0702 SO 328 841 Bury Ditches (N) Quarry (disused) Silurian: Ludlow Series (undivided) (BGS Wales Map 1:250000) Large quarry near the top of Sunny Hill from which there are good 360° views interpreted with the aid of a toposcope. The face in Ludlow Series is quite impressive but difficult to reach due to the vegetation.  It is about 20 m high at the maximum and about 50 m wide.  It displays well bedded siltstone and fine sandstone with a gentle dip.  The beds are of quite regular thickness being 30 to 50 mm thick and the whole exposure looks quite uniform.  Due to the steepness of the face and the angle of the dip only a limited number of beds can be reached to see if this is really the case.  The safest and easiest bit to reach is to the right of the entrance where it is only a few meters high and there are no dangerous overhangs.  A few fossils were found in the loose material in this area.  There is little loose material visible elsewhere but there is probably quite a bit under the leaves and fallen branches. This is on the green way-marked route through the forest.  Park at the Forestry Commission carpark for Bury Ditches and take the main path up and through the hill fort.  Over the other side take the right hand track at a T-junction.  This track then passes the quarry entrance. RIGS Yes. This is a large but very vegetated quarry on the N slope of the hill. Considered as a RIGS in conjunction with other sites in the Bury Ditches area that show the different facies of this part of the Ludlow Series. Mineralogy/Petrology
0704 SJ 312 013 Meadowtown (NE) Quarry Ordovician: Llandeilo Series: Middleton Group: Meadowtown Formation (BGS Shelve Area Map). This site is within an area made up of small valleys and associated hills between the steep narrow Hope Valley to the E and the wider; flatter Rea Brook valley to the W.  This is on higher ground and gives good views across the flat valley to the west and to other ridges etc to the SW. The exposure reveals beds of two colours with some being much paler and weaker than the rest.  The beds are very even with no undulations or obvious calcareous nodules and they have a steep dip to the NW.  There is abundant  loose material.  This shows the internal structure to be slightly undulating.  These pieces are also be the source of fossils.  Some pieces contained lots of fragmented pieces whilst at least one complete trilobite pygidium was found on this visit.  The site is only quite small; about 10 m across with the faces up to 3 m high; but it is very clear and open making it suitable for large groups. If travelling from Rorrington (SW of Meadowtown) pass through the village and take a track to the left once past the last of the houses.  Follow this around the contour of the hill to the left above the houses.  The site is on the R.  There is no public access to this site and permission should be sought from Meadowtown Farm. RIGS Yes. Alternative to exposures at the SSSI of Meadowtown Quarry.  It is suitable for large groups and there is plenty of loose material to work with. This site looks like quite a new excavation although it has apparently been regularly used by Southampton University. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0705 SO 418 779 Shelderton - Clungunford Quarry (disused) Silurian: Ludlow Series: Aymestry Group. Quarried limestone makes a prominent feature on the side of this wooded hill.  It forms a V on the map as it crosses the small valley down which the road runs as well as a few other small quarries in the hillside of which this is one. This is the highest of the quarries along this road and is just a few 10's of meters above the other quarries (Shelderton Rock and Swan Hill) to which this is compared.  In this top quarry the rock has a much more flaggy nature with more continuous siltstone beds rather than limestone nodules.  The beds are thicker here; up to 150 mm thick.  The rock is still quite calcareous in places; with some bands having a chalky texture; but there is definitely a much higher percentage of siltstone in these higher beds.  There is lots of loose material but here it is only sparsely fossiliferous with the odd brachiopod being found.  The lowest beds in this quarry are still slightly nodular so this could show a transition from the limestone facies into the Upper Ludlow Shales?? There is a further small outcrop about 3 m high and 4 m long in the roadside just above this quarry which shows some very flaggy material. This quarry is situated on a minor road between Shelderton and Onibury as marked on the Ludlow OS Pathfinder map No. 951 (SO47/57).  The quarry is on the S side of the road (on the R when travelling uphill from Shelderton).  Parking is limited to the verges which are a reasonable width in places but can be quite soft.  This quarry is fenced off from the road but there is a gate (padlocked on this visit).  Care must be taken if there is any sign of forestry operations. RIGS Yes. Included in a large site that takes in Shelderton Rock and Swan Hill quarries that are just below it. As a group of sites they provide ample material to study the limestone facies and the transition to much siltier material as the higher beds are reached. They are easily accessible and suitable for large groups. Mineralogy/Petrology
0707 SO 504 745 and SO 506 744 to 512 741 Whitcliffe (W) and Teme Bank Quarry (disused) Silurian: Ludlow Series: Whitcliffe Beds. Huge quarry cut into hillside towards the top of Whitcliffe plus excavations for the Bread Walk footpath just above the river. A series of small rock faces along the Bread Walk (max height generally 2 m) show well bedded sltst with some more calcareous layers.  Beds 10-100 mm thick gently dipping to NW.  Some internal bedding visible.  Most of the loose material contained fossils in thin layers which included many genera of brachiopods; bivalves; bryazoans and ostracods.  Some of the fossil layers were visible in the rock faces. Along the River Teme bank and up Whitcliffe there are a number of exposures and larger quarry faces along all the upper paths through the wood and along the river.  These show structures such as solution hollows; current bedding; fossil lenses; spheroidal weathering; bioturbation.  Lithologies vary in the different layers which range from fine friable siltstones to fine sandstones and calcareous sandstone and siltstone.  Bedding thickness range from mm scale to 500 mm.  Dips indicate a slight anticlinal structure with beds dipping NW at the west end of Whitcliffe and East at the east end.  The largest single exposure is in the main quarry just above the rock-cut steps in the Bread Walk.  This extends for ca. 200 m along a small path and the main face is about 15 m high.  The path goes uphill slightly allowing several of the beds to be examined closely.  This is also a good source of fossiliferous debris showing brachiopods; crinoids and occasional in-filled burrows.  The higher exposures are unsafe and small rockfalls frequently occur especially after frost thaws. Parking along the road leading to Mortimer Forest and the higher ground above Whitcliffe. RIGS Yes. Easy access to the higher beds in the sequence which may not be visible elsewhere. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0710 SO 394 875 Hillend Cottage (E) - Lydbury North Natural exposure Silurian: Llandovery Series (Upper): Pentamerus Beds. Small exposure off road at base of hillside. This is a good exposure of Pentamerus Beds dipping quite steeply SE which shows the fossil bands very clearly especially near the bottom of the outcrop and another about 1.6 m up the section. It also shows the other lithologies in these beds. The fossils are still predominantly calcified. There is plenty of fossiliferous loose material. Also in the talus were other rock types including grey sandstone with calcite veins; and a few pieces of hard; purple slate-like shale. It shows a much clearer structure than a lot of the other sites along this road including the SSSI (Hillend) about 300 m E. The dumping of the previous report has been cleared. Park at the lay-by about 400 m SW of this exposure. The outcrop is just up a track on the N side of the A489 over a derelict wooden gate. The exposure can be seen quite clearly from the road. RIGS Yes. Shows clearly the structure of the rocks and the fossils that give this rock its name (Pentamerus Beds). It has easy access and plenty of loose material to study. Fossils
0713 SO 420 854 Onny Valley (old river cliff) - Wistanstow Cliff Ordovician: Caradoc: Cheney Longville Flags. Old river cliff; about 50 m away from present river line. Well bedded Cheney Longville Flags containing fossils such as tentaculites and brachiopods and bedding features such as hummocky bedding.  The bottom section can be reached around the back of the bog which wasn't too wet at the time of this visit.  However this area has a few dangerous overhangs.  The other area is above the first up the farm track.  Here the exposure is not so good but it is safer.  There is more loose material on the farm track than below where it has probably sunk into the bog; but there is more vegetation at the top.  The different lithologies (sltst; sst and mudstone) can be seen in either area. This is just off the permissive footpath that runs along the valley.  It is on the N side and is reached over a stile in the fence off the old railway track.  It is best to park in the car park on the Cheney Longville road (SO428845) and walk along the river. RIGS Yes. This exposure is found to the N of the railway line behind a boggy patch of ground. Designated as part of a larger site encompassing the whole of the river as outlined in the attached note (Word file name:- Onny Valley RIGS). Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0714 SO 417 857 River Onny (railway) Cutting (road/railway) Ordovician: Caradoc: Chatwall Sandstone (highest). Old railway cutting. This site is right on the side of the old railway and as it is only a few metres high it is all easy to reach.  There are local variations in dip but all beds are dipping to the SE.  Shell bands can be seen in the in situ rock and there are plenty of fossils in the loose material.  It is suggested that the change in dip is due to changing storm conditions. This is along the permissive path that follows the old Bishops Castle Railway line from a carpark west of Cheney Longville to Glenburrell.  Therefore this site can be approached from either end but parking is much better at the E end. RIGS Yes. Designated as part of a larger site encompassing the whole of the river as outlined in the attached note (Word file name:- Onny Valley RIGS). Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0715 SO 413 860 Glenburrell railway bridge Cutting (road/railway) Ordovician: Caradoc: Chatwall Sandstone. Cutting on S side of old railway track running along side the river. A long (50 m) exposure which is on the W side of the Church Stretton (F3) fault.  The faulting is responsible for the steep dip (85°SE) at this locality compared to about almost horizontal bedding that is seen a few hundred meters further east.  In these mainly medium grained sandstone beds some structures are visible such as current bedding indicative of storm conditions. This is a good exposure with easy and safe access.  There is a further exposure of Chatwall Sandstone that shows the typical purple banding better (Locality 3 in ref.1).  This is found to the E up the bank in the trees; however it is not easily accessible. Under the railway bridge there are small stalactites made from water percolating through the mortar of the bridge. This is along the permissive path that follows the old Bishops Castle Railway line from a car park west of Cheney Longville to Glenburrell.  Therefore this site can be approached from either end but parking is much better at the E end. RIGS Yes. Designated as part of a larger site encompassing the whole of the river as outlined in the attached note (Word file name:- Onny Valley RIGS). Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0800 SJ 553 035 to SJ 559 036 Coundmoor Track - Cound Track/roadside  Main exposure is Precambrian (Uriconian Volcanics) but there are small exposures of Ordovician (Hoar Edge Grit and Harnage Shale; Caradoc Series) and what appears to be Lower Ordovician (Sheinton Shale; Tremadoc). Exposure of Precambrian forms a small bluff along the track while the others are trackside exposures in a wooded valley drained by the Coundmoor brook. Main exposure of Uriconian Volcanics is generally rhyolitic with some more basic rock. The rock is badly weathered and rotten with evidence of being broken by faulting. On the right of the exposure the rock looks as if it is bedded vertically but this is probably the result of faulting and it is part of a shear zone. Here; there is considerable hematite staining. The exposure continues above the main face for another 2-3 m but the rock is covered with ivy and no detail can be seen. Along the track towards Cound (Eastward); Hoar Edge Grit is exposed and near  the foot bridge and confluence (SJ 559036) there is a good exposure of a different; probably Sheinton Shale. Track becomes a public footpath a few metres beyond the Uriconian Volcanics exposure. Access is easy and one can examine the rocks close at hand. Parking is limited to two cars at the ford (SJ553034). RIGS Yes. Designated a RIGS on account of its vivid demonstration of the effect of the Church Stretton fault system in bringing into juxtaposition many rock units of different age and lithology. Structure and Stratigraphy/Stratigraphy
0803 SJ 558 034 to 559 037 Coundmoor Brook - Cound Stream/brook Upper Ordovician: Caradoc Series: Harnage Shale. Brook meanders along a narrow valley then through woodland. There are several bank exposures of Harnage Shale and some in the stream bed. At the W end of the SSSI; about 40 m from an old bridge built of Hoar Edge Grit; is a bankside exposure of grey shale; water seeps out and flows over it as a small waterfall. The shale is finely laminated; soft and shows vertical and over-turned bedding. A few metres away the dip has lessened to approx. 40°. There is evidence of brecciation. All this points to effects of the Church Stretton fault system. Upstream 100 m is another shale exposure under the roots of an oak tree; which can be seen crossing the bed of the brook. Here the dip is 54° NW.  The SSSI continues further downstream and exposures in the stream bed were examined at SJ 559037 where the Harnage Shale is still outcropping. Here the beds can be seen dipping below water level and are best examined by wading along the brook. Easy access from the public footpath. Limited parking at the ford (SJ553034). Otherwise approach from Cound Church. RIGS Yes. This is a nationally important geological site providing exposures of fossiliferous rock of Ordovician age. The stream exposures are regarded as the standard or type-section for the Harnagian stage of the Ordovician. During this stage; this area lay on the eastern edge of a deep ocean basin covering Wales while shallower shelf environments lay to the east. Fossil organisms characteristic of both environments are found at this site; allowing detailed comparisons to be made. In addition; a number of species of trilobites were first collected and described from this locality. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0805 SJ 604 082 Rushton - Wroxeter Track/roadside Precambrian: Rushton Schists. Special Sheet 60 - Telford. Not applicable. Exposure is a small flat feature on the level ground in Rushton village about a kilometre from the Wrekin. Exposures of Rushton Schists are rare and this one is revealed by erosion and weathering.  The amount of rock visible is limited to an irregular surface outcrop. A finely laminated fine-grained dark olive-grey schist is visible with quartz; plagioclase and chlorite. Foliations can be seen.  This is inter-bedded with more massive; pink; quartz- feldspar rocks which are said to contain garnet and epidote. There is evidence of quartz veining. These rocks were originally gritty shales and flags deposited in quiet waters and subsequently regionally metamorphosed to a low/medium grade. Compared by Dearnley to the Mona Complex of Anglesey. Public road. RIGS Yes. Although a limited site; it is one of very few easily accessible Rushton Schists exposures. As one can examine the rock readily and as these represent the oldest rocks of Shropshire. Mineralogy/Petrology
0807 SJ 608 001 to 609 000 Wenlock Edge (N) (Edgefield Quarry) Quarry (disused) Silurian: Wenlock Limestone (reef facies). Special Sheet 60 - Telford. Forms a gorge cutting across the crest of Wenlock Edge. This is an excellent site; a large disused quarry displaying a range of reef features in the context of surrounding bedded limestone. Next to the footpath there is a prominent exposure of nodular limestone with slabs of near horizontal limestone projecting from it. Height of face here approx. 8 m. To the left (SE); nodular limestone passes into more regular bedded rock with clay partings. The limestone is coarsely crystalline; often crinoidal; and examination of the fallen fragments revealed compound corals; small brachiopods and bryozoa. The exposure continues for about 200 m being accessible by a path along the gorge. At the far end there is a magnificent face showing ballstones inter-bedded with nodular and flaggy limestones. Thin beds can be seen above and dipping off the ballstone mass. A recess 2 m from the bottom marks a clay layer; possibly bentonite. Great limestone slabs overhang at the top of the face which is here about 10 m high. Via public footpath from Harley Hill or Much Wenlock. RIGS Yes. RIGS on the grounds of the range of features characteristic of the Wenlock Reef Facies; the easy access; its potential educational value; and the impressive beauty of the site. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0808 SJ 6100 0035 Harley Hill Quarry - Much Wenlock Cutting (road/railway) Silurian: Wenlock Series: Tickwood Beds (Special Sheet 60 - Telford); now known as the Farley Member. These are beds transitional between Coalbrookdale Formation and Much Wenlock Formation. Site is part of an impressive road cutting where the A458 goes through the escarpment of Wenlock Edge. The section comprises 15-25 m of grey; shaly mudstones with numerous prominent limestone nodules often forming bands. Fossils were not easy to find despite written references to the presence of large brachiopods; e.g. Eospirifer radiatus and Meristina obtusa (which suggest the sea was shallower than in Coalbrookdale Formation times; thus emphasising the transitional nature of the rocks at this site). There are several prominent vertical joints and two distinct recessed clay horizons near the base of the section. These weather to a brownish colour and are probably bentonite layers. Towards the west end of the quarry the bentonite layers are displaced by approx 3 m by what appears to be a fault. The lower part of the face has fewer nodules and beds are more irregular.  Ascending the sequence; the nodules become more calcareous and begin to 'fuse' into definite layers. This is an indication that the conditions were becoming more suitable for limestone formation and the Farley Member passes upward into the Much Wenlock Formation.  It is written that the lower boundary of the latter is located where calcareous nodules coalesce into limestone beds.  It is not easy to locate this boundary with conviction. This site is next to an extremely busy road and to approach on foot can be hazardous. Not to be recommended for large groups or school parties.  Parking is very limited; there being two places where a single car might pull in. RIGS Yes. This is clearly an interesting and important site and although its importance has been reduced a little by the newer Farley Dingle road cutting; it still shows very effectively the characteristics of the transitional Farley Member of the Wenlock Series. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0812 SJ 619 020 Whitwell Coppice - Homer Stream/brook Silurian: Wenlock Shale: Homerian Stage; Whitwell chronozone; Upper Coalbrookdale Formation.  ('Geology of Telford and the Coalbrookdale Coalfield. Special Sheet 60 - Telford.) Next to a tufaceous waterfall where the stream (a tributary of the Sheinton Brook) cuts a gorge into the hillside in the coppice. A fairly extensive stream section with several exposures in the bank and in the stream bed of soft; grey shale with near horizontal bedding.  Weathers to a sticky mud.  An interesting aspect of this site is the amount of tufa visible on twigs; rock fragments and at the small waterfall. The shale is distinctly fossiliferous; fragments of cephalopods and a good specimen of Dalmanites caudatus were found almost straight away. Benthonic forms are relatively scarce which suggests a deeper marine environment than that of the underlying Buildwas Beds. Necessitates a walk of approx. 200 m through the Coppice off the public footpath. This was fairly easy on the day of the survey (14/1/00) but a summer visit would present problems of brambles and tangled undergrowth.  Suitable for only very small groups especially as there is only room for one car to park on the roadside at Whitwell. RIGS Yes. This site is already a SSSI and recognised as the standard reference section for the base of the Homerian Stage in the middle of the Coalbrookdale Formation (Wenlock Shale) of the Silurian System. It is defined by appearance of the zone fossil Cyrtograptus lundgreni. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0817 SJ 624 008 Windmill Hill - Much Wenlock Quarry (disused) Silurian: Wenlock Limestone.  Special Sheet 60 - Telford. At the base of a hill with remains of old windmill. Hill is a prominent landmark in the town. Rocks exposed here are bedded Wenlock Limestones; mostly crinoidal. The faces are to some extent obscured by weathering but display clearly both nodular and flaggy beds. A definite recessed softer horizon is emphasised by differential weathering.  This is clayey in character. Bedding planes appear to be wavy as a result of the nodules and dip generally NW. In the NW corner is a prominent fault or joint plane (not easy to decide which) with tufa deposits. The quarry provides good examples of true and apparent dip.  Height of exposure is 3-4 m and the width of the quarry is approx. 20 m. On the ground were rock fragments containing a range of typical reef facies fossils e.g. Favosites gothlandicus; Heliolites interstinctus; Acervularia ananas; and various brachiopods.  Some evidence of stromotoporoids as well as crinoids was found; and on the back face possible striations were seen. There is a distinct boundary at the bottom of the back face which seems to mark the change from reef facies to more bedded limestone. Good.  Next to public footpath close to the town where there is car-parking.. RIGS Yes. RIGS mainly because it is a convenient site for school or university groups to examine easily both the reef facies of Wenlock Limestone and the bedded limestone; collect fossil material and carry out dip and strike exercises as well as identifying structures and evidence of calcite mineralisation. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0820 SJ 627 079 Wrekin Hill Natural exposure Mostly Precambrian (Uriconian Volcanics) with Cambrian (Wrekin Quartzite) on the SE flanks. (Special Sheet 60 - Telford.) The Wrekin Hill stands prominently out of the surrounding plain to a height of 407 m. Striking towering mass of rhyolite with a deep cleft Apart from the summit rhyolites the exposures although numerous are small but there is a wide variety of Uriconian tuffs agglomerates and rhyolites which can be examined easily. The summit rhyolites are pink; often flow-banded and sometimes spherulitic.The Needle's Eye is one of several rhyolite outcrops on the summit ridge of the Wrekin. The rhyolites are heavily brecciated and fragmented; described as explosion breccias; formed during violent volcanic events. This makes up part of the series of rhyolite flows forming the central mass of the Wrekin. The rock of the Needle's Eye is described by Pocock as a rhyolite 'devitrified to a micro-felsitic intergrowth of quartz and feldspar; with incipient spherulitic structures'. It is veined with secondary silica. The rock at the Raven's Bowl and Bladder Stone is probably from the same flow. At the Needle's Eye there is little flow-banding; instead the rhyolites show characteristics of auto-brecciation (a clear indication of the explosive nature of the volcanic environment). Elsewhere many basic dykes are visible along the main route to the top. At the foot of the Wrekin; and along the main path several exposures of tuffs and Cambrian quartzite are exposed. Up to 1500 m of tuffs and lavas occur on the Wrekin and the rocks are considered to have originated during a prolonged episode of explosive volcanic activity in an island arc environment in the Late Precambrian.  Open access. RIGS Yes. RIGS status in its own right as well as being part of the whole Wrekin RIGS site. The rhyolites can be examined easily and compared with other rhyolites and tuffs of the summit area. However it may be decided that designation of the Wrekin in its entirety is sufficient.  Designated a RIGS as the type section for the Uriconian volcanic suite of lavas an pyroclastics and associated with the Ercall and Lawrence Hill as an outstanding example of a faulted inlier. It is a unique location where a range of Precambrian lavas and pyroclastics can be easily studied. In association with the Ercall and Lawrence Hill; the Wrekin provides an outstanding example of a faulted inlier of Precambrian igneous rocks. Mineralogy/Petrology
0825 SJ 637 026 Farley Dingle Cutting (road/railway) Silurian: Farley Member (Tickwood Beds); Special Sheet 60 - Telford and Telford memoir. Road cutting between Farley Coppice and Tickwood which form the Northern extension of Wenlock Edge. The site comprises a cutting through the A4169 at Farley Dingle This is approx. 200 m in length and reaches a max. height of 30 m with a steep 1 in 2 slope; the section has been stepped to allow access at different levels. The sequence of rocks form a series of relatively soft mudstones and shales; grey; weathering to olive; at the base of the sequence  with bands of nodules becoming more frequent higher up. The nodules become more obviously limy higher up and begin to resemble typical Wenlock Limestone. The mudstones and shales form the upper part of the Coalbrookdale Formation and the top of the section can be described as Much Wenlock Formation. In between the rocks show transitional characteristics and are known as the Farley Member. One of the terraces has been cut approx. along the Coalbrookdale/Farley boundary. At this site; the Farley member is considered the most representative and best exposure of rocks of this age in the country. The Farley Member reflects the gradually changing environment existing 425 Ma when deep seas leading to accumulation of muds and silts shallowed and cleared sufficiently to allow the formation of limestones and the fossiliferous reefs of Wenlock Edge during the Silurian.  Fauna is not abundant but; in contrast to the underlying strata; the Farley beds contain large brachiopods; including Atrypa reticularis; Eospirifer radiatus; Meristina obtusa and Gypidula galeata; suggesting a shallower sea floor. Site flanks a busy main road (A4169) where parking is not possible.  Walking to the site along the same main road again is not pleasant. However; just below the rock face is a concreted drainage channel which provides useful access to the lower part of the section. A terrace has been cut to allow access to the upper part of the section but this is not for the faint-hearted or anyone suffering from vertigo. Not a site for school parties! RIGS Yes. This site was selected by the Geological Conservation Review as an SSSI and forms part of the 'Wenlock' subject block. Farley Dingle SSSI provides a unique locality where the transition between shale/mudstone lithology of the Coalbrookdale formation and overlying Wenlock Limestone can be studied. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0827 SJ 638 093 Lawrence Hill (Forest Glen) Quarrry Quarry (disused) Precambrian: Uriconian Volcanics. Special Sheet 60 - Telford. Spectacular cliff in the Forest Glen between Wrekin and Ercall Hills. The quarry lies to the south end of the Ercall and Lawrence Hills opposite the Wrekin. It consists of two embayments separated by three near-vertical NE/SW- trending dykes of basalt which appear to follow faults. The middle dyke is most easily examined and forms a prominent rib. The contact with surrounding pyroclastic rocks is visible. The main face consists of Precambrian tuffs and agglomerates belonging to the Uriconian Volcanics and these are seen to dip approx N at an angle of 45°. The tuffs display variable textures with definite coarser agglomerates inter-bedded with lithic and vitric rhyolitic tuffs. Irregular jointing and slickensiding characterise the quarry faces. Open access as the site backs onto a car park on the road through Forest Glen from Wellington to Little Wenlock. RIGS Yes. RIGS as an exemplary exposure of a sequence of Precambrian volcanic tuffs (and lava) which merits classification as a type section for that strata and which would be an essential exposure in any future research carried out on Precambrian volcanic rocks. Mineralogy/Petrology
0831 SJ 647 042 Buildwas Sand Quarry - Buildwas Quarry (working) Pleistocene sands and gravels; mostly Bunter-derived (Special Sheet 60 - Telford.) On southern bank of River Severn as it enters Ironbridge Gorge. Buildwas sands are deposited in thin cross-stratified units and largely consist of clean Permo-Triassic derived sands with scattered clasts often of coal debris. These sands are overlain unconformably here by coarse assorted gravels which pass upwards into a till. The sands are well-sorted; red/brown in colour and of 'millet seed' texture.  It is the back face of the now unworked part of the quarry which displays the sands and gravels best and it is possible to approach closely. The gravels in the middle of the back face are extremely coarse in places with clasts up to 0.2 m long; the size increasing higher up the face. There is some confusion at the top of this face because the topmost deposits of till appear to contain clinker and other non-naturally produced debris. The discovery that an old railway line used to run along the top of this face may explain some of the anomalies. For a good exposure of till with pebbles it is best to climb the North face and walk along a path at the top. The deposits are interpreted as fluvio-glacial and the numerous cut and fill structures are thought to have formed in braided streams of low sinuosity. Permission needed.  Report to office to sign in. RIGS Yes. A very important Quaternary site with links to interpreting the nature and formation of the Ironbridge Gorge.  Examples of varied fluvio-glacial sands and gravels as well as the clearly exposed till. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0832 SJ 665 058 Jiggers Bank - Coalbrookdale Cliff Upper Carboniferous: Lower Coal Measures. Special Sheet 60 - Telford. Part of the steep side of Coalbrookdale as it descends into the Ironbridge Gorge. An impressive exposure of mostly Carboniferous sandstone; grey/buff weathering orange; which has some massive bedding showing cross-stratification. This distinctive layer is at the top of the section and is about 6-7 m thick. The base of this horizon is a coarse conglomerate. In places there is a projecting overhang below which is a more flaggy; thinner layer (1.5 m) of sandstone. This passes downward into a more broken sandstone layer before passing into grey; laminated sandy shale containing many carbonaceous fragments. The dip can be clearly seen to be approx. NNE. By walking a few metres along the Crackshall footpath a continuation of the exposure can be seen and examined. This is hidden by trees in summer.  The rocks here are representative of a poorly drained delta plain. Site is readily accessible as it lies beside a public footpath. Limited parking is possible about 200 m down the hill but the walk to the site is along a busy road; Jigger's Bank. RIGS Yes. A very good exposure of Lower Coal Measures; illustrating variation in sedimentation according to changing environmental conditions within a deltaic setting. A striking example with reasonable access. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0834 SJ 675 068 Doseley Quarry Quarry (disused) Lower Carboniferous: Dinantian: Little Wenlock Basalt. Special Sheet 60 - Telford. Forms the back wall of an infilled and partly flooded old quarry; in the middle of Doseley. Basaltic columns rise to approx.12-14 m behind a pool; forming the back wall of the old quarry. Strong horizontal joints cross each of the columns. Between the columns orange soil of weathered basalt is visible and to the right; a deep red ochre can be seen where the iron minerals have weathered out. To the right of the main face are two thick beds of overlying Coal Measure Sandstone resting unconformably on the basalt; dipping NE.  Near to the reception offices beside the track there are exposures of leaning columns and excellent examples of spheroidal weathering. These can be examined at close hand. Cannot approach the columns of basalt on the back wall of the quarry RIGS Yes. This is probably the best example in the County of the Little Wenlock Basalt showing columnar structures. It is already an SSSI. Mineralogy/Petrology
0835 SJ 676 005 to SO 705 989 Dean Brook Bank Quaternary - Geomorphological site Steep-sided narrow valley. An interesting valley as the Dean Brook probably formed the head-waters of the Severn before the cutting of the Ironbridge Gorge. It joins the Severn now opposite the Main Terrace deposits of Apley Lawn; which are the furthest upstream Main Terrace deposits on the Severn. At the present source of the brook between The Vineyards and Dean Corner; glacial till is often overlain by patches of sand and gravels forming knolls. Mostly on private land but the main features can be seen from footpaths and public roads. RIGS Yes. Recommended as a geomorphological RIGS on account of its importance in the development of the course of the Severn and Quaternary events related to the cutting of Ironbridge Gorge. Hamblin favours the Dean brook as the place of a stillstand as the ice-Sheet retreated from the Bridgnorth to Wolverhampton line to that of Ironbridge Gorge. Geomorphology/Landscape
0838 SJ 683 117 New Hadley Brickpit Quarry (working) Carboniferous: Upper Coal Measures: Hadley Formation. Changes according to the current work in the pit. The site is a face within the working clay pit. Its thickness is approx. 34 m but not all is readily visible. The rock is Etruria-type mudstone; with espleys. The mudstone is mainly purple-brown; unbedded and in places mottled. The espleys are easy to identify; being best described as a fine breccia with angular fragments of Uriconian igneous material; feldspar; Coal Measures sandstone; and shale clasts in a matrix of angular coarse sand. Sharp erosional bases can be seen cutting into the underlying mudstone; reflecting channelling by flood waters from a relatively close upland source. Espleys are therefore lenticular channel-fill deposits; 30-40 m wide and commonly aligned NW/SE.  Overlying the Hadley Formation are the grey mudstones representing the seat earth of the Main Sulphur Coal. Via reception area at Blockley's with prior permission. RIGS Yes. The sediments here are representative of alluvial fans at the margin of the basin of deposition. Such marginal deposits in the Hadley Formation are virtually confined to this area and this is the only site where they can be clearly demonstrated. A site of outstanding importance for interpreting the geological history of the Late Carboniferous in Britain. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0840 SJ 690 023 Corbetts Dingle - Broseley Natural exposure Upper Carboniferous: Upper Coal Measures: Coalport Formation. Special Sheet 60 - Telford. Gorge-like valley eroded along the Corbett Fault. Impressive exposure of mainly sandstones either side of a deeply cut brook. The grey-buff sandstones tower 12 m or so above the footpath and display abundant cross-stratification and spheroidally weathered iron-rich nodules. The sandstones are exposed for about 300 m along the main dingle but there are more in the tributary valley. It is therefore a large site and would benefit from more detailed study. Some beds are massive; up to one metre thick; while others are more flaggy. Dip of strata is about 18° NW but the effect of the fault steepens the dip; especially in the tributary valley. Faulting has caused a downthrow and displacement of sandstones and breccia beds of 10 m to the west. A public footpath follows the dingle and close up examination of the site can be carried out.  Approach either from The Tuckies by R. Severn or from the Ironbridge road; Broseley. RIGS Yes. Splendid site with much educational value on account of its being able to accommodate a large group and be easy of access. The sandstones with many sedimentary structures representing part of the Coalport Formation and the excellent example of a fault-guided valley present a strong case for RIGS. Structure and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0842 SO 728 934 The Hermitage - Bridgnorth Quarry (disused) Permian (Bridgnorth Sandstone) and Lower Triassic (Kidderminster Conglomerate). Dudley and Bridgnorth 1967. New names from Telford Sheet. Recessed cliff with evidence of cave habitation. The conglomerate forms roof of medieval (?) dwelling. This is a striking exposure of the wind-blown Bridgnorth Sandstone with its clear cross-bedded units reflecting a desert environment. It is possible to reach the face to examine the texture of the millet-seed and grains and the nature of the dune bedding. The rock is uniformly fine-grained and red-brown in colour. Cement is scanty and although the rock stands up well as a cliff face it crumbles readily. Dip of beds is about 7° E. The Kidderminster Conglomerate has large rather angular clasts of Carboniferous Limestone marl and quartzite with scattered pebbles of igneous origin held in a coarse sandy matrix (Dudley & Bridgnorth Memoir; 1947). This represents the basal unit of the Lower Triassic. Deposited by a major north-flowing river system during flash floods in a semi-arid climate. It rests unconformably on an eroded Permian surface. Queen's Parlour on Wolverhampton Road is directly adjacent to The Hermitage. The exposure is some 50 metres long by 15 metres high. The base of this exposure comprises the Lower Mottled Sandstone (5 to 6 m deep) - a medium to fine grained rock displaying some dune bedding and believed to have been lain down in aeolian conditions. This is overlain by the Bunter Pebble Beds ( 7 to 8 m deep) consisting of a conglomerate composed of angular and subrounded pebbles (30 to 40 mm). The Bunter Pebble Beds are considered fluviatile in origin and the contents vary. Via steps and footpath from A454. Some barbed-wire obstacles. After about 1 mile there is a small traffic island and some 50 m from the Bridgnorth side of the Island on the left hand side of the road there is a small `pull in' suitable for possibly two vehicles. From there retrace route back towards Bridgnorth via a footpath along the side of the road. After about 200 m an exposure of conglomerates is clearly evident.  About 20 m below this exposure and on the other side of the road a footpath sign is just visible. Cross the road and take a well trodden footpath which after about 30 m will lead to a sandstone and conglomerate exposure. This is The Hermitage and is adjacent and to the right of the Queen's Parlour. Access is reasonable. However the crossing of the main Wolverhampton Road at this point is not for the faint hearted. It is a short and easy walk to the outcrop from the main road. RIGS Yes. Spectacular example of an erosion surface in the upper part of the Bridgnorth Sandstone overlain by Kidderminster conglomerate. Shows clear evidence of changing environment from desert to flash floods. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0843 SO 727 935 Hermitage Hill - Worfield Cutting (road/railway) Permian (Bridgnorth Sandstone) and Lower Triassic (Kidderminster Conglomerate). Bridgnorth and Dudley map 167. A454 road cuts through the rock exposing strata each side. A small exposure of Bridgnorth Sandstone at the western end of the cutting passes into a good section through the Kidderminster Conglomerate. Large pebbles of quartzite Carboniferous Limestone marl and igneous rocks are held in a sandy matrix made stronger by a calcite or silica cement. Evidence of alignment and cross-stratification can be seen. The clasts become less continuous higher up when the proportion of sand (fine and less bright than the Bridgnorth Sandstone) increases. Pebbles scattered in approximate layers and more randomly (smaller); cross-stratification in the sandstone; generally agreed to be fluvial. An interesting feature is the good example of channelling towards the E. end of the cutting and high up in the face. Exposure is on a main road but there is a footpath. Traffic noisy and dangerous. RIGS Yes. Despite the main road this site is valuable when studied with SO728934 (The Hermitage).  It is higher in the sequence and although a little Bridgnorth Sandstone is visible the main interest lies in the Kidderminster Conglomerate which passes upwards from being coarsely conglomeratic into fluvial sandstones with evidence of channelling. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0845 SJ 539 143 (fence of quarry moved; exact position difficult) Haughmond Hill (W) - Uffington Natural exposure Precambrian: Wentnor Group: Bayston-Oakswood Formation: Darnford Conglomerate. Sheet 152. On west slope of Haughmond Hill near the top. Southwest of the main working quarry; beyond the perimeter fence are several small exposures of Darnford Conglomerate showing orientation of pebbles parallel to the vertical dip. By the footpath which runs along the west boundary of the working quarry are more small exposures. Pebbles are often very small (2 mm) but there are coarser bands with pebble up to 10 mm across. The N-S orientation of the pebbles reflects the same trend of the strata which are always nearly vertical. Some quartz mineralisation was seen on the surface and structures resembling slickensides.  A little further north a wall-like exposure can be seen; 3 m across and one metre high. Although it at first looks artificial; on closer examination it appears to be a vertical exposure of very coarse; poorly sorted grit with a variety of clasts; some being green and others black. This reflects the presence of iron minerals and chlorite; mentioned by Pocock. This exposure is crossed by regular joints at right angles to each other and appears to consist of rectilinear blocks about 0.1 m across. This seems to mark the boundary between the grits and conglomerate; the latter being exposed only a few metres away along the footpath. Mostly along a public footpath but the grit exposure is just the other side of the perimeter fence. RIGS Yes. Designation because this is a striking example of the coarse grit adjacent to the Darnford Conglomerate; both being conformable members of the Bayston-Oakswood Formation.  The boundary between the two rock types seems to be here and the site can be reached without going into the main quarry.  Also these exposures should be seen in the context of the geology of the whole of Haughmond Hill. Mineralogy/Petrology
0847 SJ 545 165 Ebury Hill - Uffington Quarry (disused) Precambrian: Wentnor Group: Bayston-Oakswood Formation: Darnford Conglomerate. Sheet 152. The old hill fort forms a prominent small hill rising out of the lower land around. The exposure is within a most tastefully laid out caravan and camp site now occupying the top of Ebury Hill. By the entrance on the right is a very rotten exposure of grey sandstone with quartz. Faces of this rock can be seen across an old quarry pool but; as they fall straight into the water and are part of the landscaping in the camp site; they are inaccessible. Further west in a delightful wood along a campsite footpath; the Darnford Conglomerate is exposed in a small disused quarry. There is too much moss to examine the rock in detail and the surfaces are weathered; but the coarseness of the conglomerate is very apparent in places whereas in others the pebbles are quite small. The pebbles range in size from a few millimetres to 25 mm but it is difficult to see any orientation; dip or the pattern of distribution.  In the photo the conglomerate can just be seen passing into a sandstone (already mentioned) from right to left. A public footpath goes through the campsite but access to the conglomerate site is not on it and permission needs to be sought from reception office. RIGS Yes. Designation because this is a good exposure of Darnford Conglomerate in its context of sandstones and the exposure is at the boundary between conglomerates and sandstones. The site is borderline Rigs because some enhancement is necessary to allow better examination of detail. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0848 SJ 275 252 Sweeney Fen Cutting (road/railway) Lower Carboniferous: Sandy Limestone.  Sheet 137. In a cutting through the rolling country SW of Oswestry. A glacially modified landscape. Exposure is up to 30 m long and 5 m high. It is most clearly examined at the S end of the cutting. Thick beds of red sandstone (1 m) are exposed here showing cross-bedding in contrast to the true dip. Scattered small pebbles occur parallel to the cross-bedding within the thicker strata and also a 40 mm layer of larger; mostly quartz pebbles is seen parallel to the true bedding. These pebbles are white and pink; avr. 30 mm long being well-rounded and densely packed.  The sandstone is soft; iron-rich and with little cement. About 1.5 m above the base truncation of topset beds can be seen. Joints are common and break up the face in places. Dip is 15° NNE. Beside public right of way. Easier from southern end because some awkward fencing at northern end of cutting. RIGS Yes. Designation because this shows the contrast between cross-stratification and true dip in sandstones which form a transition between Limestones and the Millstone grit of the L. and U. Carboniferous.  Wedd speaks of the Sandy Limestone in the south of its outcrop; where it approaches the Triassic rocks as being decalcified and bright red. This description fitted the exposure at this site and it was considered that this site provided a good example of this rock formation. Hillier raises uncertainty regarding the age of these rocks possibly being of the Cefn-yr-Fedw Sandstone and thus Namurian rather than Dinantian. All adds to the interest of this site. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0851 SJ 277 245 Dolgoch Quarry Quarry (disused) Lower Carboniferous Limestone; Sheet 137. Part of the hilly Carboniferous Limestone escarpment SW of Oswestry. A very impressive quarry on a large scale. The limestone dips NE at about 12°. There are excellent clear faces up to 10 m high on two sides of the quarry; bedding is well-defined and approx. 2.5 m from the top is a recess of clay and shaly material. In the middle of the face is a massive bed 2 m thick and below are layers showing signs of bioturbation and quite high energy stirring up of sediment. In this layer are found many fossils; as death assemblages; notably Giganto-productus and the coral Lithostrotion junceum. At the foot of the face are several strata more regularly bedded. The succession here is typical of a very shallow tropical sea. Variation in texture and colour of the different beds of limestone can be examined but most of the rock is light grey and crystalline. Some calcite mineralisation is evident and often associated with slickensiding and faulting. A fine example of faulting is seen on the west face; showing a displacement of about a metre. Other striking features are the load casts; two particularly fine spherical structures at the top of the quarry on the north face. There is a short tunnel linking the main quarry with another and the roof of this is remarkable for its projecting Giganto-productus and coral specimens all over the surface. Detail of external ribbing is good and around the quarry a few specimens of internal moulds of brachiopods illustrating well-preserved muscle scars can be found. Via public right of way into this Shropshire Wildlife Trust site RIGS Yes. Designation because the site is extensive; rich in fossils and demonstrates vividly important rock-forming processes. Evidence of faulting and of sedimentary structures and variation in lithology reflecting environment of deposition all combine to make this a very good RIGS. Structure and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0852 SJ 277 256 Sweeney Mountain (west ridge) Quarry (disused) Upper Carboniferous: Millstone Grit: Cefn-y-Fedw Sandstone. Sheet 137. Quarry lies near the top of Sweeny Mountain. A large; disused quarry with some good clear exposures of Cefn-yr-fedw Sandstone. There is scope for more examination of the strata here. In places the rock forms massive crags with little trace of stratification but elsewhere; the bedding planes are clearly defined and a dip of up to 40° E can be measured. The rock is naturally cream in colour but often stained orange; the iron compounds presumably derived from nearby Triassic rocks. Texture is coarse and there are small scattered pebbles; and thin quartz veins cut through the beds nearly vertical to the bedding planes. There is a recessed shallow cave where a regular 250 mm horizon of sandstone is surrounded by whitish; staining red; sandy shale. On private land adjacent to public footpath. RIGS Yes. Designation because this is a good site exposing the deltaic Millstone Grit of the Namurian. Educationally this could be used with a group especially in contrast with a limestone quarry such as Dolgoch and as part of a study of the succession of sedimentary strata south of Oswestry. There is scope to discuss the iron-staining and to examine the texture and general lithology in relation to environment of deposition. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0855 SJ 537 136 Haughmond Hill; Douglas's Leap Natural exposure Precambrian: Stretton Group: Burway Formation. Sheet 152 Cliffs at end of Haughmond Hill Around Douglas's Leap are vertical cliffs dropping into Queen Eleanor's Bower. There are many and large exposures of green sandstones and flinty shales; typical of the Stretton Group. Cliffs drop down into a valley which seems to owe its existence to a fault line. It is not possible to record all the exposures but from the 'Leap' views are magnificent and the rocks easy to examine. Dips are always steep; near vertical and within the thinly bedded shales are more massive sandstone beds; micaceous and medium grained. There is a strong SW/NE direction of strike. The main exposure is extensive and looks like a fault plane with slickensides running parallel to the near vertical bedding. This may be imaginative observation and would need to be confirmed or refuted. There are interesting structures e.g. dimple-shaped ripple marks; parallel grooves going down the dip; a branching structure on the surface. From footpath at top of hill RIGS Yes. Designation because the site is a spectacular exposure of shales and sandstones of the Burway Formation; near to the boundary with the Wentnor Group.  Access is relatively easy.  Also the association with the fault and the interesting structures makes this possibly the best site at the southern end of Haughmond Hill. Structure and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0856 SJ 537 137 Queen Eleanor's Bower Natural exposure Precambrian: Wentnor Series: Bayston and Oakwood Formation: Haughmond Conglomerate. Sheet 152. This is on the SW corner of Haughmond Hill overlooking the Severn Valley and more distant hills. There are several exposures of the Haughmond Conglomerate showing pebbles up to 100 mm across. The conglomerate is polymict; poorly sorted and the ratio of pebbles to matrix is high. Sometimes the exposure looks like a concrete wall!  Roundness varies from well-rounded to angular and the matrix has a purple coloration. Pocock states that there are up to 80-90% igneous clasts; mostly rhyolite and felsite; the remaining 20% being quartz and quartzite. Easy access from footpath at top of the hill. RIGS Yes. Designation because this is one of three conglomerates within the Bayston-Oakwood Formation and this is specifically linked to Haughmond Hill; not being able to be traced with confidence south of Bayston Hill. The exposures here are good and easy to study. It is possible to use this exposure to put into context the rest of the rocks present at the southern end of the hill as it lies unconformably upon the Stretton Group within the Longmyndian in this locality. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0857 SJ 537 138 Haughmond Hill Fort Natural exposure Precambrian: Stretton Group: Burway Formation. Sheet 152. Old Hill Fort. Fine viewpoint at southern end of the hill overlooking the Severn; Shrewsbury and the distant hills. There are several exposures of a fairly massively-bedded sandstone; generally grey in colour with a purple tinge in places. Unfortunately the rock surfaces are weathered and covered with algae etc. so detail and structures are hard to distinguish without much hammering. Where the bedding can be seen; the steep dip is evident to the SE. The views here are magnificent and of great geological interest in relating landscape features to the underlying rocks. From public footpath. RIGS Yes. Designation because the site provides an excellent geomorphological perspective; a continuation of that at SJ 542133 with a prospect of Nesscliffe and Hawkestone and more Welsh mountains. As stated above; one can gain here a valuable understanding of the relationship between rocks and relief. These scores are based on the geomorphological value of the site. The rock exposures; although useful in building up a picture of Haughmond Hill's geology; would only justify LIGS. Geomorphology/Landscape
0863 SJ 568 062 Eyton Rock Cliff Lower Permian: Bridgnorth Sandstone. Sheet 152 River cliff for 50 m along River Severn Up to 12 m high red sandstone cliff; the rock showing uniform; well-sorted; millet-seed texture in large cross-bedded units both planar and those characteristic of dune structures. The dune bedding is lenticular in form and up to 20 m across; thinning towards the planar sandstone at the top. At the right-hand corner is a fault at a 70° angle of inclination; steepening to 80° at the bottom where small displacement can be seen. The fault plane is infilled. On private land along river bank from the farm at Eyton-on-Severn. RIGS Yes. Designation because Eyton Rock is an excellent substantial river cliff exposure of the Bridgnorth Sandstone displaying both dune and planar bedding (with a clear example of an infilled fault) sitting close to the edge of the Church Stretton fault. Structure and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0864 SJ 572 058 Eyton-on-Severn Cliff Triassic: Kidderminster Conglomerate resting unconformably upon Lower Permian: Bridgnorth Sandstone. Sheet 152 River cliff above lowest terrace of the Severn. A substantial cave now used for storage hollowed out of the typical red uniform millet-seed grained Bridgnorth Sandstone. Overlying this unconformably is a good exposure of Kidderminster Conglomerate. The junction is abrupt. Below; the cross-bedded units in the sandstone are less clear than those seen at Eyton Rock and become non-existent nearer the junction where the bedding is flaggy and much thinner. Above the boundary; the rock displays no bedding but consists of massive sandstone with scattered pebbles; some of which show alignment and rough cross stratification. There are patches of more densely packed pebbles of variable size; mostly well-rounded. This conglomerate can be traced for 70 m or so towards the race course. These exposures are part of a small faulted outlier of Kidderminster Conglomerate dipping south-east at 10° located just SW of Eyton. It is interesting to compare the characteristics of conglomerate here with that at the Hermitage; Bridgnorth where the density of pebbles is much greater On private land near farm at Eyton-on Severn RIGS Yes. Designation because this site displays both Bridgnorth Sandstone and Kidderminster Conglomerate in unconformable contact. The pebbles in the conglomerate are well dispersed quite unlike the exposures at The Hermitage. Also the exposure forms part of a small faulted outlier and is the only such site in the area. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0867 SJ 588 071 Brom Hill - Charlton Hill Natural exposure Precambrian: Uriconian volcanics; tuffs and andesite. Stands up as a grassy hillock surrounded by cultivated land thus presenting a distinct boundary as well as a demonstration of the connection between geology and relief. A faulted inlier with scattered exposures of what is essentially a tuff - fine to medium grained and flinty; indeed breaking sharply with sparks when hammered. A grey-green ground mass contains pink crystals similar to the rock on part of Charlton Hill summit. Some of the rock is more feldspar-rich; therefore pinker; irregular and sharply jointed.  Textures vary; some being very fine and andesitic of a purple-green colour. An apparent lineation of joints may suggest a shear zone. On private land used for grazing and machinery storage close to a public path. RIGS Yes. Designation because the hill is an excellent illustration of the link between geology and relief as well as being an accessible and clear exposure of Uriconian Volcanics in a famous fault zone. This site also links in well with the other exposures on and round the hill and so adds to the understanding of the complex geology associated with the fault zone. Mineralogy/Petrology
0868 SJ 588 074 Charlton Hill Farm Track/roadside Lower Cambrian: Wrekin Quartzite. Sheet 152 On side of hill descending from small plateau of Uriconian Volcanics forming Charlton Hill top. The exposure extends for more than 70 m parallel to the road. Bedding planes are revealed clearly dipping 45° SSW.  Ripple marks and many oblique joints are visible. The rock is a well-sorted quartzite; grey when fresh but here looking orange. The surface is algae-covered so detail is not clear. The rock shows possible effects of being metamorphosed as the quartz grains are fused together. Beside the public road. RIGS Yes. Designation because although there are more impressive exposures of this Cambrian Quartzite in the Wrekin area to the NE this site is part of the faulted inlier and is needed to gain a more complete picture of the range of rocks on Charlton Hill and to understand its complex geology. Mineralogy/Petrology
0869 SJ 588 076 Charlton Hill Summit Natural exposure Precambrian: Felsite Dyke crossing conglomerate band. Sheet 152 The dyke is exposed at the summit of the prominent hill which lies towards the northern end of the Church Stretton fault zone. Charlton Hill has extremely varied and complex geology because it lies along the Church Stretton fault zone and the nature of the rocks; mainly Uriconian Volcanics; show a range of textures and composition. The summit of the hill is marked by a N-striking conspicuous wall of salmon pink; splintery ;fine textured rock. This is one of several felsite dykes found in the area penetrating the bedded series of lavas and tuffs. The summit dyke is 1-2 m high and about 10 m wide.  It is crossed by many joints; including a set of noticeable parallel E-W trending ones. A trig. point stands on the dyke.  According to Pocock; but not visible with the naked eye; the rock has some phenocrysts of albite-oligoclase in a fine groundmass of albite-oligoclase and quartz. On private land in pasture. RIGS Yes. Designation because this is an unusually good exposure of felsite dykes crossing a band of Uriconian conglomerate. The summit features can be seen in the context of varied surrounding volcanic rocks as described in report SJ 588075. Mineralogy/Petrology
0870 SJ 589 038 Cressage Plocks Brook Crag Ordovician: Tremadoc Series: Sheinton Shales. Map 152 Striking downcutting in bed of brook to form a gorge; possibly influenced by presence of a dam for the paper mill. Extensive exposures are visible both in the brook bed and up the sides of this miniature gorge; 70 m long by up to 6 m high; whilst only 2 m wide in places. These Sheinton Shales are olive-coloured and argillaceous; ranging in thickness from almost paper shales to several centimetres. Generally they split well and evenly though sometimes along irregular joints. A gentle dip of up to 18° S is evident on both sides of the gorge and in the brook bed itself. There are some harder bands; found most obviously forming rapids; and these tend to break less evenly. Further; there are a number of large concretions (stinkstones) found predominantly at one horizon several metres up the gorge sides; these can be examined from the large examples fallen into the brook - up to 0.7 m X 0.5 m - where cone-in-cone structure can be seen clearly and where the sulphurous stink can be experienced when these dense; hard nodules are fractured. No fossils were detected. May be approached with permission from down or upstream. Not suitable for more than two or three persons at a time. RIGS Yes. Designation because not only is the site a remarkable example of a small gorge but it also exhibits very extensive and easily examined exposures of Sheinton Shales rising to a considerable height and varying considerably in thickness and hardness. Especial importance must be attached to the fine specimens of stinkstone; including those visible in situ high up the gorge face in the same horizon. Structure and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0872 SJ 589 075 Charlton Hill (below Summit) Quarry (disused) Precambrian: Uriconian Volcanics; unclassified. Sheet 152. Forms the feature known as Charlton Hill; which is a faulted inlier. The grassy hill top has many rocky exposures; too numerous to describe separately; but three rock types can be referred to here. Running nearly parallel to the band of conglomerate and about 5 m away from it on the east of the summit is an exposure of very black; hard; splintery rock; this is clearly a basic lava and is extremely fine-textured. A few metres south is the back wall of an old quarry with a pool at its base. The igneous rock here is dark and in part vesicular; similar but less densely black than the basalt just described. This may be andesitic in composition.  Striations are present trending roughly N-S; being evidence of the many faults in the area and perhaps the reason for the shattered appearance of the rock in this quarry. Towards the SW end of the quarry; the texture becomes a little coarser; more typical of a fine dolerite and there is a greener coloration. This dark igneous rock is exposed generally between the quarry and the felsite dyke. West of the dyke there is a significant change to medium-textured tuffs; grey with pink; presumably feldspar crystals Via summit field farmed by Mr Davies. RIGS Yes. Charlton Hill is a most important geological site for Uriconian and Cambrian rocks. There is such a fine range of lavas and tuffs; can be studied along with the summit felsites and conglomerate band; there is the Wrekin Quartzite at its foot; and there is the western andesite quarry. Mineralogy/Petrology
0873 SJ 592 064 Eaton Constantine Quarry (disused) Upper Carboniferous: Upper Westphalian: Coed yr Allt Beds. Sheet 152 On slope down to R. Severn in field. The exposure is 4-5 m high and vertical; revealing a fine sand/siltstone which is cream; weathering brown in places. The map indicates an Upper Carboniferous age and these rocks seem to be part of the Coed-yr Allt Beds. The top half of the face shows very fine bedding with a gentle dip of 12° E. There is some differential erosion and evidence of cross-bedding; even channelling. The texture of the accessible sand-brown; laminated fragments is medium-fine. The bottom half of the face displays clearer cross-bedding and more massive structure with angular; cream-coloured; randomly distributed  clasts up to 10 mm across visible from several metres away. The fragments effervesce with dilute HCl thus confirming their calcareous nature. In the adjacent field were many fragments of this breccia turned up by the plough. This breccia is likely to be derived from the Spirorbis Limestone. There are many diagonal and near vertical joints present on the face of the exposure; which unfortunately cannot be studied closely because of a deep pool in front. Via a public track from Eaton Constantine Village Hall but on private land. There is a stagnant pond in front of the clear face which makes close access difficult.. RIGS Yes. Designation because this is an unusual exposure in the area of siltstone and calcareous breccia from the Coed-yr-Allt Beds. There are no other such exposures in the locality. The strata demonstrate cross-bedded structures indicative of fluviatile deltaic environment with some evidence of channelling. Broken limestone fragments have accumulated to form the distinctive breccia related to the Spirorbis Limestone. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0875 SJ 607 037 Sheinton Brook Bank Ordovician: Tremadoc Series: Sheinton Shales. Sheet 152 The brook cuts into the steeply banked Sheinton Shales at the western side of a now till- and alluvium-filled valley; revealing also extensive brook-bed strata. This is the classic section in the Shumardia pusilla zone. Up to 7 m in height of fairly uniform shale is present on the outside bend of a meander. Grey; weathering olive; the shale is thinly-bedded (up to 10 mm); soft and easily broken and split. Considerable variation in dip; from less than 20-40° SE; together with clear evidence of arching and slumping. The flat shale beds dip into the brook and are visible 1 m below the surface and towards the centre of the brook. Part of an unidentified trilobite was seen and a few small brachiopods but the abundance of fossils described by Pocock and others would need a more careful search before they showed themselves to be there. When the water level is very low the Kenley Grit can be seen as conglomerate blocks on the bed of the brook; mostly in situ. From fields to west of brook with permission. RIGS Yes. Designation because of the size accessibility and clarity of the exposure of beds which are seldom seen so well. The fine sequence of strata represents a range of L. Ordovician and Silurian formations along the Sheinton Brook. The Kenley Grit lies unconformably upon the Sheinton Shales and marks the start of the Llandoverian marine transgression. The SSSI report describes this site as providing the best exposure of Sheinton Shales of the Tremadoc Series in the area in which the series was originally defined. Although not obviously so to the naked eye the fossil faunas are rich and contain trilobites ostracods cystoids hyolithids brachiopods sponges graptolites and an annelid. Many fossil species were first defined from material collected here and the trilobites from this locality have been the subject of particularly detailed study in connection with their value as zone fossils. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0877 SJ 608 041 Sheinton Brook Bank Ordovician: Tremadoc Series: Sheinton Shales. Sheet 152 On the Sheinton Brook just above the flood plain of the Severn. 20 m downstream of the bridge at water level and just below is an obvious exposure of 4-5 m in length of thinly-bedded olive-weathering shales with the bedding planes clearly exposed at the foot of the bank immediately underlying some till.  A continuation of the beds is visible underwater downstream and there are further exposures down the brook. Dip is 20° SE. No fossils were observed. Via a gate east of the bridge; permission having been obtained. RIGS Yes. The site is significant as one in a series of observable exposures of different horizons and different beds; series and periods stretching up the Sheinton Brook. There are better exposures of Sheinton Shale. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0878 SJ 610 032 Sheinton Brook Bank Silurian: Llandovery Series: Pentamerus Beds. Sheet 152 Brook is deeply incised here and exposure forms steep bank. The Llandovery Pentamerus Beds are exposed right across the bed of the brook as well as extensively along the western bank up to a height of 3 m. This is a very good exposure displaying the shelly facies most effectively. A prominent bed 400 mm thick of shelly limestone dips at about 10° SE. Above this and below it are thinner limestone beds crammed with brachiopods and separated by shaly limestone with soft shale partings. Above these beds is a distinctive ginger-coloured shale which is sandy and micaceous. Harder non-fossiliferous sandstone bands project from the shales. Changes of dip (e.g. to 20° WSW !) appear to be the result of slumping and some slump-induced folding is visible. The brachiopods consist of the typical Pentamerus oblongus along with Stricklandia lens and Atrypa reticularis. A coral was found (probably Streptelasma whittardi). An exposure 3-4 m high of thinly bedded strongly jointed fossiliferous brown weathering siltstones appears to represent the upper horizons of the Pentamerus Beds. At water level is a resistant band of blue-grey limestone.  Above is fine-grained shale with tiny brachiopods and slightly nodular calcareous siltstones. Although the 4 m face is of uniform appearance there are within it nodules which vary in size from 120 mm across to only 10 mm. This is a good site especially if looked at in association with the site at SJ 608034. Access from woods and fields is difficult as there are no public footpaths. It is probably best to approach by wading along the brook upstream. RIGS Yes. Designation because this is a crucial link in the chain of varying exposures along the Sheinton Brook and is in itself a rare and fine example of a substantial and clear exposure of Pentamerus Beds; considered classic by Pocock. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0880 SJ 614 028 Sheinton Brook Bank Silurian: Upper Llandovery Series: Hughley Shales. Sheet SJ 60 - Telford. The exposure represents the western limit to the meandering brook. The exposure is up to 3 m high and about 20 m long and consists of moderately dipping (18° SE) thin; greyish shales interbedded with 60 mm to 170 mm limier slabs; some of which fade out. Towards the base of the exposure is one horizon of limestone slab with consistent regular ripple-marking as well as numerous burrowing tracks and varied sedimentary structures without any directional trend. These are excellent examples of a bioturbated surface; usually associated with a shallow sea and intermittently emergent sea floor. This seems to contradict the accepted environment of a deepening sea to explain the argillaceous sediments deposited at the time and giving rise to the Hughley Shales. No mention of the trace fossils and the features described has been found in the available literature. High up on the bank are some more nodular blocks of fossil-packed limestone within the thinly bedded shales; the latter break readily into small cuboid blocks along joints. Fossils are found apparently in all horizons; including a whole 180 mm Favosites towards the top; a 70 mm Halysites near the base in the shales; small brachiopods in the shales and an 80 mm Heliolites just above water level. The presence of these colonial corals in muddy sediments was surprising. Downstream along path beside brook from Sheinwood on private land. RIGS Yes. Designation because not only is the site a clear and easily accessible (floods permitting) example of the Hughley Shales in this area but it also represents one more link in the fine series of successive strata demonstrated in the one brook. There are abundant fossils as well as a beautiful ripple-marked horizon which furthermore displays an unusually rich concentration of fossil burrows and trails. The site offers scope for discussion about the possible environment of deposition. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0882 SJ 625 013 Gleedon Hill - Much Wenlock Quarry (disused) Silurian: Wenlock Series: Much Wenlock Limestone Within the woods on the north of Wenlock Edge. This site shows a ballstone at ground level with clay pockets and bedded; flaggy limestone dipping off the reef in a direction of 60°.  Fossils in sit' are clear to see; particularly corals e.g. Heliolites interstinctus.  Other fossils include crinoids; rhynchonellids and other brachiopods. There is much replacement of  original shell material by pink calcite.  To the left in a corner is a fault with much clay infill. Left of the fault is crystalline; stratified limestone packed with highly fragmented crinoids which becomes more nodular. Mudstone layers are clearly visible and the nodules; both large and small are densely packed and look like a stone wall with clay as 'mortar'. The dip seems to be at an angle of about 10° in a northerly direction. Take a footpath on the left; a few metres along the Sheinton Road from the junction with the A4169.  Go left into the wood at a store place where there is often litter.  After about 300 m the path bears left where an exposure is seen on the right. This is not the exposure described here but 10 m on the site can be seen through the trees on the left.  Access in summer is difficult because of the vegetation. RIGS Yes. RIGS status on account of the variety of features typical of Wenlock Reef Facies and its related strata. The fault is of interest as is the range of fossil material present. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0883 SJ 626 009 Shadwell Quarry - Much Wenlock Quarry (disused) Silurian: Wenlock Series: Much Wenlock Limestone. Special Sheet 60 - Telford. Once a hill; now a deep pit below Windmill Hill. The sight of the deep blue pool surrounded by grey; terraced faces from the rim is a spectacular one. At the top there is grey shale on the RHS and on the left is mostly Reef Limestone; these forming the top terrace and rim of the quarry. Below is thinly bedded grey limestone and shale; which rests on whiter; more crystalline limestone. This; in turn; lies on more shaly beds. Fossils abound; especially brachiopods e.g. Atrypa reticularis; Leptaena depressa; Meristina obtusa; some large and well-preserved. Calcite; both white and pink; and with dog-tooth crystals is common. Because of steepness of faces it is not easy to examine all the strata closely. Near the entrance the slope down to the first level seems to be of olive mudstone possibly an exposure of Lower Ludlow shales Unofficially it is easy to get in to the quarry at the moment and permission can be obtained from Lafarge-Redland. While the restoration work is going on there is no problem but the situation is due to change. See Ownership. RIGS Yes. RIGS on account of (1) its fossils; (2) the contrasting limestone /shale horizons; (3) typical ballstone structures; albeit disturbed by quarrying. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0884 SJ 628 016 Farley Quarry - Gleedon Quarry (working) Silurian: Wenlock Series: Wenlock Limestone and Reef. Special Sheet 60 - Telford All exposures in a working quarry on the north end of Wenlock Edge. The face at the Gleedon end of the quarry to the left of the offices is the most impressive of the many interesting exposures in this quarry. Since the present company has cleaned up the faces it is possible to examine close up (although there are dangerous over-hangs and a good deal of instability) a striking ballstone embedded in stratified limestone dipping approx. west at this point. Left of the ballstone; there is some variation of dip and a series of faults and joints. Near the left-hand corner a thin clay horizon is clearly displaced and the faulting seems to have confused the dip of the strata. In the middle of Farley Quarry there is an impressive section through the bedded limestones where the changes in colour and texture can be appreciated. One is at the level of grey fine mudstones inter-bedded with crystalline slabs and nodules. It would appear that at this level the rocks have become transitional between the Coalbrookdale Formation and the Wenlock Limestone. It is the lowest part of the quarry at this time although plans are to dig deeper thus a more complete vertical section may be exposed in the near future. In the grey soft shales Atrypa reticularis is abundant and an excellent Leptaena depressa was seen. At the Far End Right there is a high vertical face of bedded limestone which is rubbly on the top and becomes massive with tufa in joints lower down. To the left of this is a broken up ballstone with reef scree material at its foot. Here there are many typical Wenlock reef fossils especially large corals e.g. Favosites gothlandicus; and stromotoporoids. On the right of the far back wall is very irregularly bedded crinoidal limestone which is rubbly and not necessarily the same as that which forms the top of the back face. Once again there are many varied fossils to be picked up freely. Opposite the weigh-bridge is a clean face of thinly bedded limestone with a distinctive small anticline. On the RHS past the offices the quarry face is vertical with thin regularly bedded limestone some clay layers and nodules. A ballstone can be seen with prominent joints; nodular limestone above and bedded below. Large nodules are embedded in a clay matrix and look like a stone wall. Pink calcite is common. At this site fossils were less abundant than in other parts of the quarry. The variety of Silurian fossils to be found at Farley is outstanding. Report to the offices after requesting permission beforehand. There are dangerous over-hangs and a good deal of instability RIGS Yes. The variety of Silurian fossils to be found at Farley is outstanding. The rock exposures in the quarry are excellent and several are worthy of RIGS. The southern part of the quarry shows the strata disturbed by faulting and is very instructive for any visiting groups who also may appreciate the relationship between Wenlock Reef Facies and the tabular limestone. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0889 SJ 636 024 Farley Dingle Stream/brook Silurian: Wenlock Series: Tickwood Beds. Special Sheet 60 - Telford A deeply cut valley of the Farley Brook and tributaries. Waterfalls flow over the various strata of the Tickwood Beds (FarleyMember) reflecting the resistant and less resistant beds. This is a lovely place where the variations in the sedimentary strata transitional between the Coalbrookdale Formation and the Much Wenlock Formation can be studied. There is evidence here that the geomorphology of the waterfalls and the deeply cut valley has been affected by faulting which may have changed the course of the brook at this point. The rocks are dipping at about 5° in a direction of 115° SE.  At the bottom of the waterfalls there is alternating olive shale and nodular; harder limestone which accounts for their presence. These rocks are similar to those at Farley Mill.  Higher up the main waterfall; as the water flows out of a tunnel; the shale is much greyer; perhaps reflecting a change from Coalbrookdale Formation to the Farley Member. These transitional beds are very variable and boundaries hard to define. The height of the exposed rock in the waterfalls is about 9 m.  Along the small tributary which flows from just west of Woodhouse Farm are many attractive tuffaceous deposits on both rocks and vegetation. Land is private but access can be gained from the bridge over the Farley Brook at the main A4169 RIGS Yes. For both geological and geomorphological reasons this site is designated as a RIGS.  The exposures demonstrate the subtle variation within the Tickwood Beds and the underlying Coalbrookdale Formation and represent the lower strata of the former; to be compared with the exposure at the 'new' road cutting where the upper strata merge with the Much Wenlock Formation. Justification for a geomorphological designation can be seen from the description above. Geomorphology/Landscape
0891 SJ 659 065 Lydebrook Dingle (N) Mine/adit Lower Carboniferous: Lower Limestone Formation below Little Wenlock Basalt. Special Sheet 60 - Telford Forms part of valleyside of narrow wooded dingle. An adit has been constructed approx. at the boundary between the limestone and overlying basalt; possibly as a drainage tunnel for the old opencast workings on the 'plateau' above. The basalt is very weathered but shows its vesicular and amygdaloidal structures; and its typically black colour and fine texture. It forms a near-vertical side to the valley and 3 m are visible. There are also numerous small; criss-crossing veins of calcite within it. Next to the adit entrance the mineralisation becomes vertical picking out a small fault or prominent joint. The contact with the Lower Limestone is sharp and the boundary can be followed easily for 3 m or so. The limestone is hard; fine textured and clearly altered by contact with the lava flow  About 1 m is exposed at ground level; consisting of a single bed. Very difficult. Permission needed from SGCT and access is up the stream bed or along the steep sides of the Dingle through what must be almost impenetrable vegetation in summer. Access to Dingle is down by the side of the bridge on the Ironbridge by-pass. RIGS Yes. Although difficult of access; this site is a 'must' for RIGS.  The contact between the Little Wenlock Basalt and the Lower Carboniferous Limestone is very clear and provides one of very few such examples. The nature of the overlying lava flow and its effect on the limestone are clearly displayed at this site. Mineralogy/Petrology
0892 SJ 6615 0580 Lydebrook Dingle (S) Quarry (disused) Lower Carboniferous: Lydebrook Sandstone. Special Sheet 60 - Telford On the side of a wooded valley above the Dingle. An excellent site for examining the Lydebrook Sandstone just off the public footpath with easy access. The quarry is approx. 20 m across and the faces rise to a max. height of 5 m. The colour of the rock is striking; being creamy brown; weathering orange.  The sandstone shows cross-bedding and possible channelling.  It is mainly coarse and is sometimes well-sorted but in other places is conglomeratic; the pebbles showing stratification. Thickness of beds is variable and the dip direction and angle changes within the quarry; because of the cross-bedding.  The site displays good fresh rock exposures. Easy. Use the public footpath; the Shropshire Way; towards Leasows Farm. Quarry is easily seen and reached shortly after the path bears left out of Loamhole Dingle. RIGS Yes. An excellent; easily accessible old quarry; suitable for a group of students and one which allows close examination of the characteristics of the basal member of the L. Carboniferous as it reflects a shallow transgressing sea.  Particularly good when looked at along with the basal conglomerate at site SJ662058. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0893 SJ 6615 0335 Benthall Edge Cottage Quarry (disused) Silurian: Wenlock Series: Benthall Beds. Special Sheet 60 - Telford Quarry is cut into the top of Benthall Edge and is north-facing. Quite impressive exposures here extending along the crest for about 100 m.  There is a variety of massive to flaggy fossiliferous; mainly crystalline limestones inter-bedded with shales and siltstones. The standard section for the Benthall Beds is at a nearby site on Benthall Edge but there is much to be seen here. There are a series of old quarries following the line of the crest. At the most westerly end of this site; near a footpath which goes to Benthall Hall; the lower beds are 0.25-0.3 m thick and nodular on the underside. Above 2 m the limestone becomes nodular; the strata much thinner and they alternate with green/brown mudstone. The latter is weathering to clay and tends to wash down and cover the surface of the rock. Height of face is 9-12 metres. The top beds project in a more resistant layer of flaggy limestone.  About 10 m east is a vertical 'blasted' face where ballstones can be seen surrounded by nodules embedded in mudstones and shales. The rock has plentiful corals and brachiopods typical of the Wenlock Limestone. At the east end; nodular strata dips at about 24° to the SSE. The nodules result in undulating partings between beds. Easy via public footpath from Ironbridge or Benthall Hall. RIGS Yes. The whole of Benthall Edge is worthy of designation as RIGS but there are several separate sites worthy of this status in their own right. This is one such which offers ease of access and allows the variations in the Benhall Beds to be studied. The massive flaggy nodular and shaly/ muddy layers and also some reef structures provide evidence of changing environments during the period of deposition. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0894 SJ 662 057 Lydebrook Dingle Natural exposure Lower Carboniferous: Lydebrook Sandstone. Special Sheet 60 - Telford On the valley side of a deep wooded narrow dingle. An exposure of the conglomeratic phase of the Lydebrook Sandstone. Main exposure is 10 m long and 2.5 m high. It forms a massive face of coarse conglomerate with 0.3 m of weathered sandstone at its base. Pebbles are mainly quartz or quartzite; densely packed; and very varied in size; ranging from 50 mm down to a few mm. Shape is sub-rounded to sub-angular and the are set in a sandy matrix. On the right of the face the pebbles show evidence of layering and possible cross-bedding. These layers seem to dip approx. north.  The pebble horizon gives way to sandstone higher up the face; the boundary being very sharp. After the Ropewalk; follow footpath as it bears left uphill. Turn sharp right at the yellow footpath sign and site is 30 m over a bank. No problem about access. RIGS Yes. An impressive conglomerate exposure in the Lydebrook Sandstone; one to which one could take small groups without fear of damage; can examine face close-up. Illustrates deposition in a shallow marine sandbank-type environment. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0895 SJ 662 058 Lydebrook Dingle Natural exposure Lower Carboniferous: Lydebrook Sandstone. On the side of a steep narrow valley above the stream. Stoney Hill fault crosses the dingle from SW to NE causing greater amount of Lydebrook Sandstone to outcrop at this locality. It can be seen forming massive rocky sides (20 m high) to the valley from this point north and west. Some of the exposures are weathered and covered with algae but there are a number of excellent ones. This is the smallest of three possible RIGS or LIGS sites. The sandstone is fresh; cream/orange. The middle of the exposure shows evidence of channelling as the base of the massive bed is distinctly concave and seems to rest a thinner layer of softer; more clayey sediment and a pocket of lighter sandstone with carbonaceous fragments. Above and below; the sandstone is massive. As the main footpath from the Ropewalk bears left; continue down towards the stream along a less-used path. Before reaching the stream; the exposure can be seen up the slope to the left. Access is not difficult. RIGS Yes. Very useful when studied in association with other sites in the Dingle. Shows the characteristics of a basal deposit laid down at the beginning of a marine transgression; pebbles; coarse sand; and plant fragments. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0897 SJ 663 058 Lydebrook Dingle (S) Stream/brook Silurian: Wenlock Shale: Coalbrookdale Formation. Exposure on the side of stream in deep; wooded; narrow valley. The Wenlock Shale can be seen overlain unconformably by the Lydebrook Sandstone. The latter is distinctively yellow and conglomeratic representing the basal L. Carboniferous marine transgression. The exposure extends for about 10 m and is approx. 4 m high.  2 m of grey shale is visible below the sandstone; the contact being clear to see. The softer shale is recessed and an uneven boundary can be examined just above ground level. Difficult. It is the policy of the Countryside Trust to discourage disturbance of wildlife in this 'wilderness' environment (a gem amidst all the development of Telford). Permission needed from Severn Gorge Countryside Trust. RIGS Yes. A most important site; seemingly not documented in the Telford Memoir. Such a clear unconformity with visible contact between the Silurian Wenlock series and the basal Carboniferous. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0898 SJ 661 060 Lydebrook Dingle (N) Stream/brook Lower Carboniferous: Lydebrook Sandstone. Special Sheet 60 - Telford Deeply cut narrow valley with waterfalls and rapids. Although this is a good site for looking at the Lydebrook Sandstone; there are better exposures further downstream; allowing easier access. This is described as a geomorphological site of great interest. The main waterfall owes its existence to the relatively resistant sandstone and the steep sides of the narrow dingle; and gives one the impression of being in an upland valley in the hills rather than within the bounds of Telford. The rocks are near horizontal and the waterfall has a vertical drop of approx. 8m; the water eroding the bed of the stream to form plunge pools below. There are other smaller falls; best described as rapids; along the bed of the stream and much evidence of orange iron-staining in the banks; probably derived from the old open-cast workings nearby. It is at this point upstream that loose transported blocks of basalt and limestone start to make their appearance. Difficult; no public access but permission may be obtained from the Severn Gorge Countryside Trust. RIGS Yes. As a geomorphological site of aesthetic and unusual interest in the area; this site is recommended as RIGS and should be considered in the context of the whole of Lydebrook Dingle which is already an SSSI on the grounds of its wildlife and botanical value. Geomorphology/Landscape
0900 SJ 6635 0575 Loamhole Dingle - The Gorge Stream/brook Silurian: Wenlock Series: Wenlock Shale: Coalbrookdale Formation. Special Sheet 60 - Telford Within a deeply cut dingle exposed on the high bank above the stream. Next to a water tunnel and waterfall is a vertical bank of Wenlock Shale; 4.5 m high and extending at least 0.5 m under water. The 'shale ' is more of a mudstone here; uniform and breaking into small; multi-sided; thin fragments. About 0.5 m above water level is a definite recess; indicating a more clayey layer. In front of the face is a deepish pool fed by water from the tunnel; this makes access to the face rather difficult. About 9 m downstream; is a 10 m long bank of the same rock. Dalmanites caudatus and orthocones are relatively common From Museum of Iron; along the Ropewalk and then via the stream bed. RIGS Yes. The exposures of Wenlock Shale; (Coalbrookdale Formation) in Loamhole Dingle are the best north of the Severn; according to the Telford Memoir. This is a particularly clear and representative example with abundant fossils; especially trilobites and cephalopods. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0901 SJ 664 034 Pattins Quarry - Benthall Edge Quarry (disused) Silurian: Wenlock Series: Benthall Beds. Special Sheet 60 - Telford Quarry forms elongated 'valley' feature below the top of Benthall Edge. There are many features of interest in this quarry; which is taken as the standard section for the Benthall Beds. These are massive to flaggy; shelly; crystalline limestones with nodular horizons and shaly partings. There is evidence of a ballstone with a pocket of nodular limestone within it. Above this is more nodular limestone with projecting slabs of resistant; crystalline material. Beds dip at an angle of about 25° and in an approx. SE direction. At the SW end the face shows clear evidence of faulting; there is displacement of 0.5 m to the left and softer strata 'slump' towards the fault plane. Other small faults occur and give rise to small scale step-faulting. Nodules cause undulations between beds and a small monoclinal fold is seen. The quarry is an excellent place for the collecting of fossils from the many rock fragments lying around; the Benthall Beds containing many corals; stromotoporoids and typical Wenlock brachiopods. RIGS Yes. This quarry has within it the standard section for the Benthall Beds and that alone recommends the site as RIGS. However; there are other features as well as the impressive section through these varied limestones; particularly the examples of faulting and small-scale folding and the range of fossils present in the quarry. Structure and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0903 SJ 667 035 Bowers Brook - Benthall Edge Stream/brook Silurian: Wenlock Series: Coalbrookdale Beds: Farley Member: and Benthall Beds.  Carboniferous; Upper Carboniferous: Coal Measures Sandstone. Special Sheet 60 - Telford A deeply cut stream with waterfalls incised in the north slope of the Ironbridge Gorge in Benthall Woods The Broseley Fault crosses the brook at a point where it comes through a pipe by the lower footpath to flow into the R. Severn. There is no change in rock type though here. Behind the pipe are the top 3 m of the Coalbrookdale beds; green; limy mudstones exposed in the stream bed and banks. Dalmanites caudatus and orthocones are found in these shales. The harder strata of the Farley Member form a waterfall and it is clear to see the muddy shales becoming more limy and containing more nodules towards the top of the waterfall. Access further up the valley is dangerous and difficult but the Farley strata continue upstream for at least 200 m before being succeeded by the very fossiliferous Benthall beds; mostly flaggy limestones; which are exposed almost to the top of the Edge where Coal Measure sandstone lies unconformably on the Silurian strata. A series of small waterfalls and cliffs continue from the lowest level to almost the top of the Edge. Quite difficult; even dangerous; because the brook is deeply cut and precipitous; but limited access is possible from the paths at several levels for those of reasonable fitness. RIGS Yes. RIGS because such a depth of exposed strata in such a remarkable geomorphological context is rare in the area. The waterfalls; the fault and the unconformity between the Coal Measure sandstone and the Benthall beds combine with the exposure of the Farley Member and the Coalbrookdale Formation to make this one of the most important sites in the Ironbridge Gorge. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0904 SJ 670 039 Lincoln Hill - Ironbridge Quarry (disused) Silurian: Wenlock Series: Benthall Beds. Special Sheet 60 - Telford Lincoln Hill stands imposingly at the western end of the Ironbridge Gorge above the N bank of the R. Severn. The quarry and best exposures lie on the steep east side of the hill.  Below Lincoln Hill are deep underground caverns in the limestone; the legacy of extensive mining in the Gorge. Along the path from the top of Church Road to the Rotunda are several exposures of the reef facies; easily examined and providing a good range of shelly fauna. On the left are about 10 m of Benthall Beds half a metre high. Next to this is a small quarry of grey; nodular limestone with indistinct bedding up to 4 m high in the upper exposure and 2 m high in the lower one. The rocks appear to be dipping SE at about 36°. At the bottom of the exposure; the stratification is clearer; nodules less distinct and there appears to be part of a ballstone. There are many fossils; often very fragmented; but a good stromotoporoid was observed and rhynchonellid brachiopods. Immediately parallel to the Rotunda path is a depression (presumably a former small quarry) where there are further exposures of clean nodular beds of limestone and here many fossils can be found in the loose fragments on the ground. The most useful fossil sites are on the steep east face above the old quarry. One face of the old quarry is freshly exposed and thin irregular beds of Wenlock Limestone are seen to be dipping ESE; towards the top of the face layers become more regular. The rocks are cream/brown in colour; typical of the Wenlock limestones. Via footpaths from various roads leading from Ironbridge up to Lincoln hill. Although much of Lincoln Hill is open access; permission is needed to visit the old quarry and the fossil sites on the east face. RIGS Yes. Already an SSSI; Lincoln Hill is an historically famous fossil locality. The abundant shelly fauna have been studied since the time of Murchison; who first described the site.This is the type locality for a number of fossil groups; notably ostracods; and in the last few years has played a key role in fresh studies of the fossil fauna of the Wenlock Series; detailed studies of the fauna of Lincoln Hill have been important in understanding the environment of the reefs and the adjacent backreef lagoon. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0905 SJ 672 039 Lincoln Hill - Ironbridge Natural exposure Upper Carboniferous: Lower Coal Measure Sandstone. Exposure is at the top of Lincoln Hill. There is a tongue of rock just off the Limeburner's path to the Rotunda.  At its base is what seems to be the opening to a tunnel. Here; sandstone; weathering brown can be seen dipping at about 18° SE.  The sandstone is light in colour and fine-medium textured with little evidence of cementation; the sand grains rubbing off on one's fingers. The exposure is about 3 m high and  rests unconformably upon the Benthall Beds although at this site the contact is not visible. A few metres on the right of the Limeburner's path to the Rotunda; approaching from the top of Lincoln Hill road. RIGS Yes. The site provides an easily accessible example of Coal Measure Sandstone next to the Silurian Limestone exposures on Lincoln Hill. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0906 SJ 6725 0405 Lincoln Hill - Ironbridge Quarry (disused) Upper Carboniferous: Lower Coal Measure Sandstone overlying Silurian: Wenlock Series: Benthall Beds. Special Sheet 60 - Telford The exposure is on the NW-facing slope of an elongated former quarry on the top of Lincoln Hill Light grey; weathering brown; 0.6-0.7 m thick massive sandstone is dipping at approx. 20° SE. Texture is that of a medium sand and this rock is underlain by 0.2 m of soft grey shale which weathers to clay. The shale tapers out to the right and seems to form a pocket between the sandstone and hard crystalline limestone beneath. This is a good example of the unconformity between Wenlock Series and the L. Coal Measures. The base of the sandstone is a thin pebbly layer; suggesting a basal conglomerate. The limestone here becomes more nodular beneath the massive horizon and is crinoidal. Fairly easily reached by turning sharp right off the Limeburner's path along the bottom of the now naturalised old quarry and then looking up the slope to the right. RIGS Yes. Designation because this is a very good example of an unconformity between Silurian Wenlock Series and the overlying Lower Coal Measure Sandstone where the contact is clearly visible. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0910 SJ 729 158 Lilleshall Hill Natural exposure Precambrian: Uriconian Volcanics. Special Sheet 60 - Telford Lilleshall Hill rises dramatically from the surrounding plain to a height of 132 m AOD. The Uriconian crags are on the top. Forms smooth dipping plane on NW side of the hill. These rocks are described in 'The Regional Geology of Central England' as albite rhyolites with tuffs and breccias. The exposures are very impressive with flinty fine-grained pink rhyolites showing rock cleavage in an approx. E-W direction. This has the effect of producing parallel slabby small faces exposed almost en echelon along the top of the hill; trending in line with the Lilleshall Fault. On the east side of the hill just below the monument there is a marked boundary between the cleaved rhyolites and the irregular masses of coarse tuffs. Fragments of flow-banded rhyolite 10 mm long are clearly seen in the tuffs. Examples of a more coarsely crystalline tuff much deeper red in colour are also present on and around the hill. On the NW side the rhyolites are splintered and seem shattered presumably the result of faulting which is also responsible for the cleavage lineation. A very striking steep smooth slabby exposure of the Lilleshall Fault forms the edge of the hill on the west. The abrupt change of slope at the foot of the hill here corresponds to the faulted margin. It is possible to see multiple parallel fault planes close at hand. The height of the fault plane is approx. 15 m. From the road that goes round the hill; enter a wooded area over a wire fence at the NW end. Others obviously go in here although it is not a public footpath. RIGS Yes. Not only on account of its geomorphological value but because here are exposed the most northerly Uriconian rocks along the Church Stretton Fault System. Also the varying textures of the volcanic rocks can be easily be examined. An excellent example of a large fault plane made more special as it is the northerly end of the Church Stretton Fault System and when standing on the top of the hill; it can be lined up with the Wrekin and the trend determined. Mineralogy/Petrology
0911 SJ 734 165 Lilleshall (N) (limestone quarries) Quarry (disused) Lower Carboniferous: Dinantian: Visean: Carboniferous Limestone. Sheet 153; Wolverhampton. Deep excavated chasms; once quarried now very overgrown. At first sight no rock seems visible because the steep slopes are covered with slipped soil and thick ivy and other vegetation; including many fallen trees. A large specimen of Lithostrotion junceum was embedded in the path and there was evidence of other limestone fragments scattered around. There are large pools with obscured faces going steeply into the water with no access. Below a lower path; however; formerly a quarry track with lime kilns and tunnels; a good exposure  of limestone was present. It is possible to reach this exposure and near-horizontal; irregularly bedded limestone rises to about 16 m forming the edge of excavation. This seems to be the level down to which quarrying as opposed to mining which also took place here; was carried out. There are recesses in the face; some of which represent a red shale within the limestone. The limestone is cream/pink in colour; fine textured; nodular in appearance and dense.  This is described in the Telford Memoir as concretionary. Open access via footpaths in the woods at the North end of Lilleshall. RIGS Yes. Part of the faulted Inlier at Lilleshall and the only Carboniferous Limestone north of the Wrekin area in the east of the county. It also completes the geological picture of the compact Lilleshall Inlier itself. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0912 SO 585 977 Knowle Quarry - Wenlock Edge Quarry (disused) Silurian: Wenlock Series: Much Wenlock Limestone Formation.  Sheet 152 or SO59. On the dip slope of Wenlock Edge. The quarry illustrates very well the relationship between bioherm reef and inter-bedded nodular and uniform Silurian limestones of the Wenlock Series. There are thin beds of shale which weather more quickly and form recesses. A good example of arching can be seen above the reef. The south end of the quarry has uniform thin beds of stratified limestone and shale. At the north end is a fault with a calcite vein. Reef-building stromotoporoids and colonial corals (mostly tabulate) are abundant and many other typical fossils are found e.g. crinoids brachiopods inc. Leptaena depressa bryozoans Poleumita discors and centrifugus and occasional trilobite fragments. Quarry is approx. 40 m wide and height of exposures is up to 8 m.  At the bottom of the steps at the S end is a smaller exposure showing reef structures and stratified limestone. Here it is possible to examine the face close up. This quarry is 4.5 km SW of Much Wenlock. Access from NT car park and public footpath. It is necessary to keep to the paths here in order to protect wild flowers. RIGS Yes. An excellent example of patch reef and relationship with interbedded nodular and tabular limestones (Silurian). There are other features such as fault and mineralisation. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0915 SO 463 924 Hazler Quarry - Hope Bowdler Quarry (disused) Precambrian (Uriconian Volcanics); Ordovician (Caradoc Series: Harnage Shales) On the SW side of Hazler Hill The quarry is located in Uriconian basalt and tuffs which can be seen to dip 50-80° N.  The basalt is weathered showing blue-green mineralisation; the dolerite is green. There is a Neptunean dyke in the right-hand corner of the quarry - see Toghill and Greig. The 70 mm cleft has been cleaned out since February 2000 but is increasingly deeply recessed with a smooth surface filmed with water and algae so not readily identifiable for what it is. The few fragments of brown weathered Harnage Shale infill nearby were difficult to identify and showed no evidence of fossils. This site although well-known and considered to be important is now very disappointing. Beside public lane. RIGS Yes. Designation because the presence of the Neptunean dyke within the Ordovician/Precambrian unconformity is the only local example. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0916 SO 464 902 Hatton Bridge Stream/brook Ordovician: Caradoc Series: Acton Scott Beds; sandstones and siltstones Forms a gorge through the sandstones. The Acton Scott Beds are extensively exposed along and above the brook for a stretch of 40 m with a cliff rising to 7 m above the water and descending to 1.5 m below.  The rocks consist mainly of flat slabs gently dipping; thinning higher up the face. The clearest exposures are in the water either in the plunge pool by the bridge or in the brook bed below the pool. The predominant rock is a fine-grained olive well-sorted sandstone which forms a prominent ridge above the muds and shales about water level. There are some grey shalier layers containing tiny fossils and some hard yellow siltstones with many decalcified fossils. 20 m downstream of the bridge are exposed calcareous fossiliferous blocks though most fossils are decalcified; these include some excellent moulds of brachiopods; Reuschella semiglobata; Onniella grandis; trilobites and tentaculites were also seen. 100 m upstream of the bridge (on land owned by the same farmer) can be seen a 3.5 m high bank of soft thinly-laminated mudstone which breaks into small flat fragments and weathers into brown soil; it contains occasional harder sandier layers. Other exposures of a similar type can be found further up the brook towards Hatton. On private land over fence on public bridge RIGS Yes. Designation because the site is unusually large and clear for the Acton Scott Beds with a range of rock types and valuable highly fossiliferous material at different horizons. The plunge pool and the river cliff with the several metres wide brook-bed exposures are themselves significant geomorphological features in the context of the Acton Scott Beds. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0917 SO 467 908 Chelmick below Little Coppice Bank Ordovician: Caradoc Series: Cheney Longville Flags; sandstones and siltstones. Sheet SO49. Brook runs down the dip slope of the strata towards Hatton. A series of small rapids in the brook running down the bedding planes with a dip which is 20-25° SE.  Harder bands (the sandier layers) cause the rapids to form; these alternate with shales to give a rapid and plunge pool effect. The sandstone is finely laminated and splits along the partings like a shale. It is soft ginger and micaceous and sometimes has a nodular-like upper surface. A good example of ripple marks was seen. The shaly layers tend to yield more fossils which include Dalmanella wattsi; Sowerbyella; and Strophomena grandis as part of a typical Marshbrookian fauna. Beside public right of way (as now diverted along field boundary) RIGS Yes. Designation because of the clear exposure of a succession in the Cheney Longville Beds of fossiliferous stronger and weaker sandstone and shaly bands (the latter replaced by small plunge pools); the excellent ginger sandstone itself appears in a range of strengths. Beautiful parallel ripple-marks. Its combination with the sites at Chelmick Farm and Chelmick Little Coppice provides a useful succession of exposures within the Cheney Longville Beds. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0924 SO 509 979 Chatwall Sheep Pens Quarry (disused) Ordovician: Caradoc Series: Hoar Edge Grit Just below the top of Hoar Edge. A large quarry with faces 6 m high in thick irregularly bedded sandstone; some beds 1.5 m thick. Many diagonal joints and joint planes can be seen. The sandstone (or grit) is coarse and cream weathering brown with quartz pebbles a few millimetres across. At the base of a thick stratum are many small pebbles. This is a typical basal bed laid down during a marine transgression; in this case at the beginning of Caradocian times. The Hoar Edge Grit is finer and less conglomeratic than the Kenley Grit deposited at the start of the Llandovery transgression. Many big blocks 3 m by 1.5 m lie on the floor of the quarry; many with holes where pebbles have fallen out. The clasts tend to be mainly angular although the Grit as a whole has been described by Hains as having rounded clasts. The Grit has a dip of approx. 50° SE. In private woodland 40 m from a public right of way RIGS Yes. Designation because this is a substantial exposure of Hoar Edge Grit typical of the sandy as distinct from the shelly facies. Hains considers exposures are poor in this area so this is an important site. Although in private woodland access is easy. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0925 SO 513 973 Yell Bank - Chatwall Quarry (working) Ordovician: Caradoc Series: Chatwall Flags and Sandstone. Sheet SO59 Excavation in field just below top of Yell Bank. These are exciting new exposures presumably excavated by the farmer to provide stone for his own use. The rock being quarried is flaggy and highly fossiliferous sandstone which abruptly becomes a coarse conglomerate. The descriptions of Chatwall Sandstone in the literature speak of a basal conglomerate; this is strikingly it! The clasts are rounded (often quartz or quartzite) but there is much variation e.g. rhyolite and dolerite. The sandstone is a uniform well-sorted medium rock; light brown in colour.  Both rock types are superbly exposed at the moment. Further west (parallel to the road) there is pure thinly stratified fine to medium sandstone and (at the western extremity) brown-grey flaggy sandstone is dipping 42° SE. Within it are lenses of conglomerate; the rock clearly splits along bedding planes into thinnish slabs. Above this horizon the conglomerate becomes more continuous. The exposure has been excavated along bedding planes and at the top (just below the road) is a 2 m layer of chaotic loose flags at all angles. The fossils (mainly brachiopods) are not evenly distributed and are usually decalcified. via field gate onto public road RIGS Yes. Designation because it is a new fresh exposure of Chatwall Flags and Sandstone with an unusually good basal conglomerate. It demonstrates the lithology and the fauna of these rocks in a striking way and is accessible (with permission) for group study. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0926 SO 514 974 Chatwall Home Farm Cutting (road/railway) Ordovician: Caradoc Series: Chatwall Sandstone and alternata Limestone.  Sheet SO59. The site is on top of Yell Bank (a prominent ridge) where a driveway to Chatwall Home Farm cuts through a succession of Ordovician strata. A sequence of steeply dipping (45-50° SE) sedimentary strata are exposed here. The details of the rock succession are difficult to see because of moss and algae and finding boundaries was challenging especially as the domestic helper at the farm was distinctly edgy about our presence. The length of the immediate cutting is approx. 23 m but exposures continue nearer the house. The height is about 4 m. The boundary between Chatwall Flags and Sandstone could not be identified with confidence (if it was indeed there). The sandstone is fine textured brown and with beds of varying thickness. Some evidence of small pebbles in the sandstone was seen. On the RHS 6 m from the road is a prominent recessed layer which on close examination reveals poorly preserved brachiopod shells. This was taken to be the boundary between the Chatwall Sandstone and alternata Limestone. The latter appeared sandy and flaggy but with shelly lenses. By the roadside are several 'in situ' ground level exposures of shelly alternata limestone. Dean has described in detail the rocks present at this site and should be referred to. Beside private drive. Permission needed from owners. RIGS Yes. Designation because Dean's study of the faunas from this section showed that the 3 groups of beds could be assigned to Upper Longvillian Lower Longvillian and Soudleyan and that the highest and lowest zones of the Lower Longvillian were absent. These faunal breaks together with the changes in lithology at the top and base of the Lower Longvillian Beds led Dean to conclude that non-sequences occur both above and below the rocks of that stage. He also suggested the base of the Chatwall Sandstone should be taken on lithological criteria at a horizon some 24-27 m above that defined by Pocock. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0930 SO 5420 9775 Church Preen Quarry Quarry (disused) Silurian: Llandovery Series: Kenley Grit On the hillside below Church Preen village; on part of Kenley Edge. A fair-sized disused quarry in the Kenley Grit. The face is approx. 4 m high. The bottom 2 m consists of thick beds of coarse pebbly sandstone weathering orange-brown dipping SE at about 10°. Within these beds are two recessed horizons of finer muddier material of thicknesses 20-30 mm and 70 mm. These thinner layers are shaly and contain occasional small pebbles. Each of the thick layers has conglomeratic horizons at intervals. The face breaks up along vertical and oblique joints into large blocks. Halfway up the face the beds are less massive and are somewhat irregular. Smaller blocks are rounded where they have become weathered and tend to be loose. There are occasional large slabs near the top. At one place along the face glacial till appears to penetrate to a depth of a metre vertically and fills pockets with varied sized bits of Kenley Grit quartz and erratics. Within the till are small and large pebbles and shelly shale in a silty matrix; all crumbly and soft. There is evidence to suggest faulting has taken place. Some of the Grit in the middle section of the face near a dead tree has a curved base and this is underlain by a recess of softer mudstone. There is also evidence of the gritstone beds wedging out to the right; cross-stratification and a change in the dip of the strata. This may suggest rapidly changing sediment deposition in a high energy shallow marine environment. Permission needed from New Holding Farm. Then easy access can be gained through a field gate. RIGS Yes. Designation because the quarry displays excellent exposures of the Kenley Grit with interesting sedimentary structures and overlying till.  Such large exposures of this rock type are not often found. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0932 SO 542 982 Church Preen Manor Pond-bottom exposure Ordovician: Caradoc Series: Cheney Longville Flags; and Silurian: Llandovery Series: Kenley Grit.  Sheet SO 59. Pond is dug out in the gardens of Church Preen Manor on the dip slope of the Kenley Ridge. A remarkable site; visible only every 4 years or so when the owner drains the Victorian pond lying in the course of the brook in order to clear the rapidly accumulating silt. The beautifully polished alternata Limestone in situ makes up part of the floor of the pond. The limestone consists of shelly strata (seen to be often lenticular elsewhere) is grey in colour and fine-textured. The name reflects the abundance of the brachiopod Heterorthis alternata. Had it been possible to examine more closely the fossil content of this exposure other brachiopods e.g. Kjaerina bipartita and Sowerbyella sericea and such trilobites as Broeggerolithus longiceps might have been present. At the bridge looking up stream Kenley Grit is exposed on the right bank. Here it is quite weathered but the quartz pebbles are distinctive. There is a gentle 10° dip to the SE. Immediately under the bridge the Kenley Grit can be seen overstepping the underlying Cheney Longville Flags marking the start of the Silurian marine transgression. There is very little angular difference at this unconformable boundary; both rock types dip SE at between 10° and 20°. There is a marked contrast between the thick orange-brown coarse pebbly Kenley Grit (reflecting a near-shore facies) and the thin fine textured grey-green Cheney Longville Flags (reflecting a low energy shelf environment in late Ordovician times). It was not appropriate to disturb the stream bed in search of representative fossils. Can be seen from the side of the pond when this has been drained and cleared; closer viewing would be possible but this is hardly a site to be placed on any itinerary! Permission must be obtained from Mr and Mrs P. Trevor-Jones. RIGS Yes. Designation because of the clarity of the unconformable boundary where the Kenley Grit oversteps the Cheney Longville Flags. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0934 SO 552 944 Wilderhope Youth Hostel Entrance (Lutwyche Hall) Cutting (road/railway) Silurian: Wenlock Series: Wenlock Limestone. Sheet 166 At the crest of Wenlock Edge. A 60 metre length of limestone face exposed a few metres back from the public road; up to 8 m in height but diminishing to the NE. The clearest section is 15 m long at the SW end. Dips 12° SE. The rock is cream/grey with flaggy finely crystalline projections but generally discretely nodular with shale partings and consequent wavy partings between beds. The occasional thick resistant layers have uneven undersides with shales below. At the S end the shale is more substantial than further N; up to 50% of the face. There are two major near-vertical joints at the SW end with shaly infilling; these may be faults but if so movement has been slight. There are fragments of small brachiopods and evidence of crinoids. Beside public road. RIGS Yes. Designation because it lies in the transition zone between the 'reef tract' to the NE and the 'off reef tract' to the SW.  It shows a variety of limestone lithologies effectively including micrite bioturbated wackestone and pelmatozoan debris. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0935 SO 5620 9555 Easthope (NE) - Wenlock Edge Cliff Silurian: Wenlock Series: Much Wenlock Formation (reef ). Sheet SO59. Just below B4371 on the scarp face of Wenlock Edge. Two adjacent exposures. The higher one consists of nodular reef facies bedded with clay between the nodules. The limestone becomes more flaggy at the top of the section just below the road. There is then a 5 m barrier of vegetation and then a ballstone; rather overgrown; up to 0.9 m across; can be seen at a lower level within the Tickwood Beds. The usual common Wenlock reef fauna is present. The Tickwood Beds (Coalbrookdale Formation Farley Member) can be seen to the right of the ballstone. These are nodular with regular 50-60 mm beds as well as clay partings. No actual contact visible between the Much Wenlock Limestone Formation and the Tickwood Beds. Easy access down a track from the B4371. It is a safe and easy site to study. RIGS Yes. This is already an SSSI on account of its being the most southerly exposure of Wenlock Reef facies on Wenlock Edge. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0936 SO 563 917 Shipton (Old Lane) Track/roadside Silurian: Downton Series: with 'Ludlow Bone Bed' at base; overlying Ludlow Series: Whitcliffe Beds. Lane on the dip slope of the Aymestry Limestone towards Corvedale Here the basal bed of the Downton Castle Sandstone (2.4 m) is apparently overlying the Ludlow Bone Bed which is said to occur (B.A. Hains) as two impersistent beds (13 mm thick and 100 mm apart). Although the present surveyor found possible evidence of this identification was inconclusive. Buff silty shales of the Downton Castle Sandstone were seen as were the succeeding yellow flaggy sandstones. The latter were fine grained and micaceous with cross-bedding and fine laminations. But as the lower beds of the Downtonian were silty (and therefore similar to the upper Whitcliffe especially as the surfaces were strongly weathered) the boundary was difficult to define. Nevertheless one metre above ground level a recess may have been the position of the Bone Bed particularly as below it the siltstones seemed more lime-rich and a Fuchsella amygdalina was found in situ. Beside public lane RIGS Yes. Designation because this is the only well-preserved and accessible exposure of the transition from Upper Ludlow Shales to Downton Castle Sandstone in this area  Exposures of the Ludlow Bone Bed are rare so this site (with its potential for showing the environmental change across the Ludlow/Downton boundary) is of great value. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0939 SO 569 965 Wenlock Edge - Ippikin's Rock Cliff Silurian: Wenlock Series: Much Wenlock Formation; reef facies. Sheet SO59. Reef is part of the scarp face of Wenlock Edge. A wonderful view where the underlying rock type can be related to the surface topography. View looks from Silurian Wenlock Series (limestone and shales); across Llandovery Series (Hughley Shales and Kenley Grit) to the Ordovician and beyond to the Precambrian Longmyndian and Uriconian. Spectacular massive high face of reef limestone where the reefs are at their highest. Reef limestone is inter-bedded with nodular regular beds which resemble a stone wall. Strong vertical joints split the reef face. A prominent rounded stromotoporoid about 0.5 m above the base appears to have been a trigger to reef building. The face is weathered and this obscures the fossil content of the rock but crinoids tabulate and rugose corals are present along with brachiopods and bryozoa. The visible relationships between reef and shelf limestone and reef and mudstone are very clear. Exposure is 15 m high and 28 m wide. Regarding the view the Edge can be seen running south-westward (the escarpment being off-set by faults along its length). The Longmynd and the volcanic hills of Lawley Caradoc and the Bowdlers rise steeply in the distance while the rolling topography of alternating resistant and less resistant grits and shales reflects the underlying rocks. The position of the basal Llandovery can be appreciated as can the line of the Church Stretton Fault running between the Wrekin and the Stretton hills. Open access to the Ippikin's Rock view-point and to the footpaths on Wenlock Edge. A path leads from the view-point to the right. A few metres further on turn left along a much lesser used path which brings you to the foot of Ippikin's Rock. Do not park in the car park of the Wenlock Edge Inn without asking permission. Landlord likes custom but isn't keen on field groups with muddy boots. RIGS Yes. Designated as RIGS as the site provides an excellent example of a Wenlock Edge patch reef at its maximum development and allows easy examination of the relationship between the reef and surrounding modular and tabular limestone beds. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy/Geomorphology/Landscape
0940 SO 573 968 (SO 571 967 on GIS) Upper Hill Farm (SE) - Wenlock Edge Cutting (road/railway) Silurian: Wenlock Series: Wenlock Shales: Coalbrookdale Formation: Apedale Member. Foot of the scarp slope of Wenlock Edge. This old railway cutting exposes grey/brown/green weak mudstones; easily weathered and crumble to scree. Bedding is thin and irregular. Some beds are more resistant and contain discrete larger rounded nodules. Along the bank about 25 m from the N end there is evidence of alternating resistant and less resistant rock layers; some strata are more crystalline. Fossils are scarce; merely a few small brachiopods. There are prominent diagonal joints and large nodules; general dip direction is SE. Height of exposure 3-4 m and about 90 m is exposed along the path. Reflects a tropical sea environment but one where the sea was deeper and muddier than with the succeeding Much Wenlock Limestone. Open access along public footpaths. Nearest carpark is at Presthope (NT). RIGS Yes. Provides one of only a few exposures of the Apedale mudstones (Wenlock Shale) and is important for interpreting the Wenlock Series succession of the area. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0941 SO 574 966 Lilleshall Quarry (SW end) - Bourton Quarry (disused) Silurian: Wenlock Series: Much Wenlock Formation: Reef facies; and Wenlock Limestone. Sheet SO 59 At the top of the dip slope of Wenlock Edge; forming an elongated 'valley' parallel to the crest. On the north side the main face rises dramatically up to the road. From a distance the relationship between reef and stratified limestone can be appreciated as the ballstones and their effect on the surrounding rocks is clearly visible. Lying on the ground are large blocks of limestone which are often slickensided and mineralised with calcite. Crystals of calcite are large well-formed rhombs forming aggregates. The link between calcite mineralisation and faulting soon becomes apparent as a few metres SE of the main face is a calcite vein some 350 mm thick which runs diagonally across a broken ballstone at ground level. To the left of this is a vertical shatter-zone where faulting has resulted in calcite mineralisation and brecciated reef limestone. Between this and another sub-parallel fault the rocks have been displaced downwards and Lower Ludlow Shales appear at the top of a narrow 'pinnacle' of limestone. Between the broken reef and stratified limestone dipping SE at about 15° a 3 m wide section of weak stratified weathered rock with thin beds of discontinuous calcareous nodules occurs. This seems to be a rather atypical exposure of the down-faulted Lower Ludlow Shales altered by the faulting and subsequently weathered. There are several features of interest near the middle of the quarry. The floor is of grey fine gently dipping limestone which has a palaeo-karst appearance. This can be seen exposed on the north side amidst the quarry waste which buttresses the faces. There are many fossils: surprisingly corals e.g. Favosites gothlandicus; brachiopods e.g. spiriferids; rhynchonellids; strophomenids; gastropods and a glabella of a trilobite (15 mm long). Here the conditions were low energy marine with some evidence of a very shallow sea even emergence because of trails and other signs of bioturbation. The sediment was fine deposited as a limy mud. On the south side of the quarry in this area are two separate 'stacks' of limestone left after quarrying. One shows very clearly lower greyer thicker strata divided from crystalline layers with shale partings by a 120-150 mm layer of shale. Rocks are dipping approx. SE at 10°. There are fewer fossils here. The face is 9 m high. The second 'stack' is a bit higher in the succession and consists of coarse grey crystalline limestone Enter via a track opposite the works on the Bourton road. There are no restrictions to prevent access although permission should be sought from the Bardon Company at Lea Quarry. RIGS Yes. This is an outstanding site. Not only is there a splendid shatter zone with its effects clear to see but the Lower Ludlow Shales become exposed in a most interesting way. The calcite mineralisation is impressive and the massive blocks of limestone are unusual along Wenlock Edge. Also the far end of Lilleshall Quarry is a delightful place with all sorts of wildlife. Structure and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0944 SO 579 971 Lilleshall Quarry entrance Quarry (disused) Silurian: Wenlock Series: Much Wenlock Formation: Reef facies; and Wenlock Limestone. At the top of the dip slope of Wenlock Edge; forming an elongated 'valley' parallel to the crest. This quarry has many interesting features. The high faces at the SW end of the site give an impressive view of the inter-relationship between ballstones and surrounding stratified limestone. These high near vertical faces do not allow close examination and are better viewed from a distance. However there are other more accessible places which display splendid geological features. At the entrance to the quarry itself a long exposure runs at right angles. Light grey fairly coarsely crystalline thin slabs occur with olive siltstones. The former weather brown and contain scattered crinoids some 100 mm across. There is much clay between the layers. The colour of the crystalline limestones varies from light brown to a deep grey and there is also variation sometimes sudden in texture. Calcite is common often pink there being large and well-formed crystals. Within the stratified limestone small ballstones occur which result in what appears to be folding in the surrounding rock. Further along the exposure there is more fine-grained muddy limestone with paper shales grey in colour. A fault can be seen showing mineralisation of 20-30 mm thick calcite with slickensiding and brecciation of both rock and calcite. The fault has an E-W trend. Dimensions: 70 m long and 4 m high. Enter via a track opposite works on the Bourton road. There are no restrictions to prevent access although permission should be sought from the Bardon Company at Lea Quarry. RIGS Yes. RIGS status because of the variety of features to be seen: ballstone within stratified limestone; crinoidal; crystalline limestone contrasting with shales; effects of a fault. The whole quarry deserves RIGS status but there are separate sites which need to be described in their own right. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0945 SO 581 974 Wenlock Edge - Cliff and Roof of Presthope Tunnel Cliff Silurian: Wenlock Series: Much Wenlock Formation; and Coalbrookdale Formation: Wenlock Limestone and Shales. Sheet SO59. Above roof of old railway tunnel through scarp slope of the Edge. A thick sequence of inter-bedded mudstones and thin nodular limestones is exposed at and above the tunnel entrance. These represent the Farley Member of the Coalbrookdale Formation. They illustrate a transition between the underlying mudstones (Apedale Member) and overlying Much Wenlock Formation above. At the base of the cliff limestones are nodular within thicker mudstones; higher up layers of coalesced nodules are separated by thin shales. Colour changes from green/brown at the base to grey/white at the top. Width of exposure is 10 m; height approx 15 m. Fossils are scarce in the mudstones but the strata become more fossiliferous with typical Wenlock fauna further up the cliff. This reflects deeper muddier conditions becoming clearer and shallower in a tropical marine environment. From Hughley road take footpath along Presthope cliff section and go down the steps leading to the roof of the tunnel. Can also be approached from the opposite direction along the old railway line from the Ippikin's site. RIGS Yes. Importance lies in the transitional nature of the lower series (from underlying mudstones to Upper Much Wenlock Formation) and the obvious White Much Wenlock Formation above. Talus gives representative specimens. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0946 SO 5817 9743 Wenlock Edge - Presthope cliff section Cliff Silurian: Wenlock Series: Much Wenlock Formation. Sheet 152 or SO59. Scarp slope of Wenlock Edge. Shows patch reef development in the Much Wenlock Formation and variation in inter-reef limestone lithologies. The reef here is low and discontinuous. Thin bands of shale are present. The inter-bedded limestones are nodular or tabular occurring in fairly thin beds. Some crinoid-rich beds are thicker. There is evidence of slickensided surfaces indicating post diagenetic strike-slip movement along joints. At the end of the section (nearest the Hughley road) there is clear evidence of the bioherm causing the underlying beds to be depressed and warped. The section is 50-60 m long; height variable up to 7-8 m. Calcite mineralisation is often present. Fossils found include reef-building corals and stromotoporoids e.g. Halysites Favosites and many non-reef building organisms e.g. crinoids bryozoa and many brachiopods; representative of a clear shallow tropical sea. From NT car park GR583975; approach from the Hughley road and use public footpath along the section. RIGS Yes. Its importance lies in the clear examples of small patch reefs and their relationship with interbedded nodular and tabular limestones. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0949 SO 617 993 Much Wenlock Cutting (road/railway) Silurian: Ludlow Series: Leintwardine Beds. Track cutting next to road out of Much Wenlock into Corvedale. The rocks here are mostly olive mudstones with lenses of crystalline grey limestone. There is much calcite (sometimes pink); large crystals. The shales and mudstones are thinly bedded with irregular partings. The exposure is about 40 m long and 5 m high. There seems to be a significant boundary below which the rock is fragmented whilst above it are more regular strata of thicknesses varying from 300 mm to 30-40 mm. Dips are variable too; not consistent with the general SE dip of Ludlow strata and with angles of inclination ranging from 18° to 45°. This may be the result of faulting close at hand. Rocks are very fossiliferous; there are many finely comminuted fossils in the more crystalline shelly strata but preservation is better in the siltstones. Fossils include Fuchsella amygdalina Camarotoechia nucula Salopina lunata and many others. On private land beside farmer's track into field RIGS Yes. Designation because the site displays a good exposure of U. Leintwardine strata with a typical range of fossils which can be studied; there are few such sites in the Much Wenlock area. It also shows evidence of faulting and calcite mineralisation. From the geological map Sheet 152 it can be seen that the exposure forms part of a narrow rift valley. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0952 SO 717 928 Castle Hill Gardens (East) - Bridgnorth Cliff Permian: Bridgnorth Sandstone. Sheet 167 (Dudley) - old map; different nomenclature. New names from Toghill 1990. Sandstone cliff with caves on south side of River Severn In the cliffs beneath the public gardens the sandstone cliff rises impressively. Large scale trough cross-bedded units are inter-bedded above and below with planar cross beds. There are many caverns; the remains of excavated dwellings; and at the southern end one of these is accessible and shows a three-dimensional section. Observable from public gardens belonging to Bridgnorth Council. The outcrop stands some 20 or 30 metres back from the road and this area is well maintained by the council as a publoic amenity. RIGS Yes. RIGS classification as it is the type section for the Bridgnorth Sandstone. Displays complex of trough and cross-bedded sandstone units which represent westward-migrating draa dunes with superimposed barchan and linear dunes. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0953 SO 724 939 High Rock - Bridgnorth Cliff Lower Triassic: Kidderminster Conglomerate; lying on top of Permian: Bridgnorth Sandstone. Summit of the sandstone ridge where there is a marvellous view (especially) in winter towards Bridgnorth across the R. Severn. The dunes of the Permian Sandstone drop 70 m sheer to the road. There are several crags by the path with exposed bedding planes. Continuing up the path leads to exposures of the Kidderminster Conglomerate which are excellent for close study. via public footpaths RIGS Yes. A 70 metre cliff of Permian Sandstone topped by an easily examined Lower Triassic Kidderminster Conglomerate combines with a magnificent view. A geologist's delight! Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0955 SO 738 956 Rindleford Quarry Quarry (disused) Lower Triassic: Kidderminster Conglomerate. Mostly the sandy facies Long vertical wall of former quarry near Rindleford Mill. At first glance this sandstone could be mistaken for aeolian but a closer look at the low angles of cross-bedding the scattered pebbles and the more angular quartz grains will identify it as being fluviatile. There are no beds of conglomerate visible at this point but the strata belongs to the Kidderminster Conglomerate Formation. This is an extensive site (at least 100 m in length) and the faces 9 m high. The quarry exploited a thick coherent bed of nearly pure sandstone within the Pebble Beds. Beside public footpath RIGS Yes. Excellent fluviatile features and located near similarly excellent aeolian sites in Bridgnorth (as at Castle Hill gardens). The section brings out well the difference between aeolian and fluviatile deposits. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0956 SO 733 958 (SO 732 958 on GIS) Worfe Bridge - Worfield Cutting (road/railway) Triassic (Kidderminster Conglomerate) over Permian (Bridgnorth Sandstone); Toghill 1990. Map out of date regarding nomenclature. Just part of a roadside cutting from which the relief rises abruptly. On the west side of the road north of the Worfe Bridge a cut section shows cross-bedded dune Bridgnorth Sandstone with an undulating erosion surface dipping gently to the NE. Above this is Kidderminster Conglomerate (1 m thick) with clasts up to cobble size which fill hollows in the erosion surface. The beds above are intermingled coarse pebbly cross-bedded sandstone and conglomerate lenses. This is a very informative site. On the east side of the road similar features occur but not so clearly. However here the conglomerate itself is truncated by a major parting with an erosion surface dipping 5° N cutting through this basal surface. This section continues south with over 100 m of interleaved cross- tangential- and trough-bedded sandstones. Beside A442. Limited parking near Worfe Bridge. RIGS Yes. Clear demonstration of transition from aeolian deposition of pure sand to fluviatile deposition of mixed sand and pebbles. Also features of dune deposition are clear. A good site for teaching although the main road makes large groups impossible. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0958 SO 739 902 Quatford (Little Chef) - Quatt Malvern Cutting (road/railway) Permian: Bridgnorth Sandstone. Toghill 1990. Nomenclature out of date on Sheet 167. Vertical  cliff. There are 200 m exposing dune sandstone. At the southern end is a steeply inclined dune structure apparently dipping south and truncated sharply by planar beds which apparently dip north at varying angles. The section is impressive as are so many of the sandstone cliffs in the vicinity. It reaches a max. height of approx. 10 m. Further north the face is more broken but more steeply inclined dune beds are visible. The cliff section demonstrates westwardly migrating sand dunes. Best viewed from the carpark of the Little Chef and the grass verge opposite the cliff section. It is possible to walk along the foot of the exposure but the scale is best appreciated from a distance. RIGS Yes. Shows truncation and overlap of cross-bedded foresets within westerly migrating sand dunes. Stratigraphy/Stratigraphy
0960 SJ 542 133 Haughmond Hill (S) - Uffington View N/A Viewpoint on south-facing slope of Haughmond Hill Views here are extensive and a geological panorama is presented. It is an ideal spot to see the Wrekin; Clee Hills; Church Stretton volcanics; Wenlock Edge; Long Mynd; and the Welsh Mountains. The site presents an excellent opportunity to relate landscape features to the underlying rocks. The immediate foreground is the southern tip of the North Shropshire Plain and the Shrewsbury Coalfield area. Public footpath RIGS Yes. Designation because of the range of Shropshire geological features clearly visible can hardly be surpassed; and the relationship between rocks and relief can clearly be demonstrated. Geomorphology/Landscape
0962 SJ 543 134 Haughmond Hill Trig. Point Crag Precambrian basaltic intrusion Forms a rounded ridge summit at the highest point of Haughmond Hill (152 m). The summit exposes a WNW-ESE dolerite dyke beneath and around the trig. point.  The rock is a medium crystalline greenish dolerite. As is usual with basic intrusions; the surface weathers brown. Within the dolerite are discontinuous; whitish; small veins; up to 10 mm across. They show alignment in a NNE/SSW direction. Under a hand lens these veins seem to consist of quartz and a black; bituminous material. It is possible that they represent infilled tension gashes. Along publicly used track. RIGS Yes. Designation because this site demonstrates a good example of a Precambrian dyke forming the summit of Haughmond Hill; the trend can be measured and there are interesting details e.g. possible tension gashes. Mineralogy/Petrology
0963 SJ 543 149 Haughmond Hill (N) - Uffington Track/roadside Precambrian: Wentnor Group: Bayston-Oakswood Formation: Darnford Conglomerate. Sheet 152. On NW flank of Haughmond Hill as the land goes down to the River Severn. This site has potential but in June it is difficult to examine the rock closely. However; as is typical of Haughmond Hill; the strata are vertical. The Darnford Conglomerate is displayed as an attractive green/purple rock with pebbles which here are smaller than in some other places; most clasts are to be measured in millimetres. It could be described as pebbly grit. According to Pocock; 10% of the pebbles are igneous. An interesting feature to be seen at this site is a smooth surface dipping at only 45° and not consistent with the dip or its immediate surroundings. Although this could be a joint it was thought more likely to be a small fault plane. By the side of B5062 and thus easy to reach. RIGS Yes. RIGS designation especially in association with site SJ544419. Relatively easy access to what is a limited outcrop of one of the important conglomerates within the Bayston-Oakswood Formation. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0968 SJ 5925 0012 Harley Brook confluence (on tributary) Stream/brook Silurian: Wenlock Series: Wenlock Shale: Buildwas Formation; close to possible boundary with Coalbrookdale Formation (see Bassett) Deeply incised small tributary valley near confluence with Harley Brook 25 m up the tributary; a 1 m high waterfall crosses the brook. The waterfall appears to be the result of a hard nodular band which is tufa-covered. The tufa protects the underlying thinly-bedded soft grey calcareous shales and so preserves the waterfall. [A smaller fall (0.5 m) sits a few metres upstream]. A typically rounded plunge pool has been formed with sides curved by fluvial erosion. Unfortunately the strata here are moss-covered so the detail is obscured. Below the fall and 10 m from the confluence; a 5-6 m high exposure can be seen on a steep bank. Here there is one prominent continuous nodular band dipping quite steeply in an approximately southerly direction. At the top of the exposure are smaller and more discontinuous nodules aligned approx. with the bedding. The rest of the face consists of olive mudstones; sometimes showing very thin bedding but elsewhere breaking more irregularly. These strata contain many very small and fragmented fossils; mostly brachiopods. A prominent near-vertical joint is visible. Although site is on land of Mr J Munslow; because of the steepness of the banks access is easier from the field opposite belonging to Mr J Brookshaw of Forge Farm; Harley RIGS Yes. Designation because at or close to this site is the basal boundary stratotype for the Apedale member of the Coalbrookdale Formation taken to be immediately above the highest Buildwas nodular limestone; according to Bassett. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0969 SJ 592 002 Harley Brook confluence Cliff Silurian: Wenlock Series: Wenlock Shale: Buildwas Formation. Sheet 152 River cliff at confluence of Harley Brook and tributary in Apedale The cliff exposure is 7 m high on the outside of a meander. The rocks consist of shales siltstones of the Buildwas Formation. At the base of the section are two layers of large non-continuous calcareous nodules separated by irregular thin-bedded grey silty shales which weather brown. There is a 20 mm thick white soft clay layer; probably bentonite; above the lower nodules at about 1 m from the base. The middle of the face consists of siltstones about 20 mm thick alternating with much softer shaly mudstones. Here slumping is evident and stratification somewhat chaotic. Joints cross these beds and there is possible small-scale faulting. The top 2 m or so is unstable and bedding extremely irregular; however; large slabs of and separated nodules can be seen. Beds dip gently SE at no more than 10°. At the foot of the cliff is much loose material excellent for fossil examination - fossils are abundant and included several fine specimens of eoplectodonta duvalii; an unidentified trilobite cephalon and much finely comminuted material. Along brook from Forge Barn with permission of landowner. RIGS Yes. Designation because the exposure demonstrates a large accessible section through the Buildwas Beds close to the boundary with the underlying Llandovery Hughley Shales and provides abundant fossils typical of the formation. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0970 SJ 5925 0035 Forge Barn Stream/brook Silurian: Wenlock Series: Wenlock Shale: Buildwas Beds. Sheet 152. On right bank of Harley Brook in Apedale where the softer mudstones and shales form a valley between Kenley Ridge and Wenlock Edge. The exposure extends for approx. 20 m and forms the bottom 4 m of an 8 m bank. Just above the level of the brook; are gently dipping blocks; 100-120 mm thick forming a distinct horizon. These are of grey appearance and form a hard layer; being nodular in places and seem to be limestone concretions; sparking when hit with a hammer. Below water level are softer blue-grey mudstones which can be seen extending half-way across the brook. Above the nodular layer are similar soft; grey; shaly mudstones and about 3 m up the bank the mudstones become more olive-brown and contain very small brachiopods. The exposure mentioned in the literature at SJ 592003 was not visited because of a torrential thunderstorm and very difficult conditions along the brook. On private land; via brook or field. Wellies needed. RIGS Yes. Designation because this is a good section through the lowest strata of the Wenlock series; very close to the boundary with the Hughley shales of the Llandovery.  This boundary crosses the brook in a number of places and this site should be studied with others in the locality. The whole of the brook from the A458 to Hughley village is designated an SSSI for its geological importance. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0971 SJ 594 007 Domas Stream/brook Silurian: Llandovery Series: Hughley Shales. Sheet 152 In deeply incised Harley Brook in Apedale; below Wenlock Edge. For 25 m there are intermittent exposures deep into the brook bed and up the bank (to 1.5 m) of richly- and often parti-coloured soft shales (brown/blue/green/purple). The highest face unfortunately stands beyond an inaccessibly deep pool but from a few metres it can be seen as clearly bedded with strata of varying but moderate thickness. Shales contain well-preserved fauna including brachiopods up to 15 mm across. The brook churns up from its bed large numbers of beautiful lumps of shale which quickly break up into smaller fragments but are ideal for examining fauna. On private land in steep-sided and potentially dangerous brook. Not a site for the faint-hearted but a very interesting one!  Permission needed. RIGS Yes. Designation because this site produces fine specimens of fresh clean Hughley shale and a good well-stratified vertical face; access is extremely difficult and its educational use for groups is therefore very limited. Fossils
0972 SJ 619 049 Leighton Stream/brook Quaternary: landscape affected by fluvio-glacial action Floodplain of the Severn featuring striking meanders This is a geomorphological site. The meanders on the Severn in the flood plain here are outstanding. Sometimes they disappear under flood water which covers the whole valley but usually they can be seen in the context of the Severn valley; the mouth of the Ironbridge Gorge and the hills flanking the valley. In particular; there is a mature meander with a narrow neck; almost ready to be cut off to form an ox-bow lake. The narrowing of the valley as it approaches the Ironbridge Gorge is clearly seen and the first of the river terraces can just be made out from the view-point. Visible from viewpoint at parking place by public road RIGS Yes. Designation because the valley here demonstrates lateral erosion and deposition by the river as it builds up its flood-plain. This is also the place where ice-dammed waters accumulated and fluvio-glacial sands and gravels were deposited prior to the cutting of the Ironbridge Gorge. It is a unique and striking section of the Severn Valley. Geomorphology/Landscape
0974 SO 484 965 Comley Quarry - Cardington Quarry (disused) Cambrian: Lower Comley: Lower Comley Sandstones and Limestones. Sheet 166. On lower ground at N end of Little Caradoc. The best known section through the L. Comley Sandstone where green glauconitic medium textured sandstone is seen dipping at 73° E. The type section of the Lower Comley Limestones is at this site; a detailed description of the divisions is referred to in Hains. There is a discrepancy between what is supposedly present in this quarry and what is readily visible; such is the extent of deterioration. Anyone visiting the quarry even with some geological knowledge will be greatly disappointed and is unlikely to be able to identify the horizons described. Is open to public road RIGS Yes. Designation because of its undoubted importance as the type section for the Lower Comley Limestones. Also the place where Lapworth discovered the first L. Cambrian trilobite. However these scores are based on what is supposed to be there. A student group would no longer find this site interesting or helpful! Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0977 SO 477 918 Soudley Quarry Quarry (disused) Upper Ordovician: Caradoc Series: Horderley (Soudley) Sandstone Formation: Alternata Limestone Formation: Cheney Longville Formation. Sheet SO 49. Quarry on the scarp slope of the SE-dipping Caradoc series; E of Soudley Brook. A massive face of Soudley Sandstone rises abruptly at the back of the old quarry. Bedding is difficult to identify. The distinctive stripes in the sandstone are easy to see although they are not as purple as seen in buildings; probably due to weathering. Some fallen blocks are over 2 m thick and crinoids are visible in places. The angle of dip is approx. 12° SE.  There is a clear break about two-thirds up the face which appears to be the boundary with the overlying alternata Limestone; this is moss-covered and packed with brachiopods; mostly decalcified. This boundary is almost inaccessible and dangerous to reach. Greig describes the alternata Limestone as '3 ft 3 in. of green mudstone; generally silty and shaly; with 3 bands of shelly limestone; 4 to 5 in. thick'. Pieces of the shelly limestone can be found at the foot of the face. Below the boundary; the Soudley Sandstone is rather broken and above the strata consists of thinner beds; which then become thicker up the face. The strata above the alternata Limestone belongs to the Cheney Longville Flags but it isn't safe to examine them in situ. A section through the strata is described in Greig; p.129. From public footpath entry to quarry is easy but examining the upper faces is difficult and dangerous. RIGS Yes. The only contact in the area between the alternata Limestone and the Cheney Longville Flags. Also the brachiopod Heterorthis alternata was first defined from specimens collected at this locality as were several trilobite species. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0984 SO 490 956 The Wilderness - Cardington Quarry (disused) Ordovician: Caradoc Series: Chatwall Sandstone. Along the Wilderness sandstone ridge. Here exposures are limited by grass and nettles but are visible and able to be examined to some degree. The dip is steep (about 70° or more) and the sandstone is khaki in colour and medium grained. At the best exposure the strata can be seen to be dipping nearly vertically along a well-defined bedding plane. Here the rock is fossiliferous with good examples of brachiopods e.g. Sowerbyella and Kjaerina. In a hollow on the west side of the ridge are many loose fragments and larger blocks of a variety of rock types including red Triassic sandstone and igneous rocks e.g. dolerite.  These presumably are glacial erratics. Beside public right of way in pasture RIGS Yes. Exposure showing the presence of Alternata Limestone on the crest of the Chatwall Sandstone escarpment. There are better exposures of Chatwall Sandstone but this is an accessible site with the fossiliferous interest and the excellent erratic material. In the light of the demise of the nearby Netchley Quarry this could be developed into a replacement. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0987 SO 500 900 Eaton Track Track/roadside Silurian: Wenlock Series: Coalbrookdale Formation: Apedale and Farley Member: Homerian Stage. Stratotype for base of Upper Gleedon chronozone of the Homerian Sunken track at foot of scarp slope of Wenlock Edge. Difficult to describe because although there are many sections of exposed rock the condition of the site is very poor and most of the exposures are covered in ivy. The fine grained limy mudstone can be seen is irregularly bedded fairly soft and in places displays curved joints. Some faces appear massive along vertical joint planes whereas others are much more thinly stratified. Although careful geological work at this site has established the base of the Gleedon Chronozone of the Homerian Stage it would be extremely difficult to do this today. It is however interesting to read the account of what is there even if the significant features are now nearly completely obscured. In itially along public track beside Eaton church but majority of site is on private land (higher up) and notices specifically prohibit access to geologists. RIGS Yes. Designation because of the undoubted historical value of this site in establishing stratigraphical boundaries in the Wenlock Series of the Silurian. It is already recognised as a SSSI and is an internationally important locality. The site is designated a standard section for the Homerian Stage. The section also spans an important junction between two zones based on graptolites Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0988 SO 505 942 Hillend - Cardington Natural exposure Cambrian: Wrekin Quartzite resting on Uriconian Quartz Porphyry. Sheet 166. A sharp SW-trending quartzite ridge lies along the strike A prominent exposure of white sugary rock which stains black or brown with weathering. The strata dip steeply from 40°-50° SE.  Texture is slightly coarser towards the base and irregular jointing leads to a brecciated appearance. Principal joints at 25° just E of N. There is some quartz mineralisation on the surface showing slickensiding on the west side of the ridge. The quarry at the north end of the ridge is used by the farmer and not accessible.  Although there is quartz porphyry underlying the quartzite; exposures are hard to find and the evidence comes from fragments at the surface on the west of the ridge top which show a pink feldspar-rich rock with quartz crystals in a finer groundmass. On private rocky pasture sitting above the public footpath. The substantial quartzite quarry at the village end of the hill is used for farming purposes. RIGS Yes. Designation because the Wrekin quartzite is exposed very clearly and sharply as a distinctive edge visible for miles and forms a limited Cambrian exposure outcropping between two E-W trending faults. The underlying intrusion of quartz porphyry (especially if a small exposure could be revealed) is also interesting. Mineralogy/Petrology
0989 SO 512 936 Gilberries Farm Stream/brook Silurian: Llandovery Series: Pentamerus Beds. SO 49. In the valley of Heath Brook; east of Cardington Hill. Exposure is about 10 m long and up to 1 m in height; including above and below water level. The bank is higher but is mostly covered with soil and vegetation. The rock occurs as discontinuous slabs; is grey; fine-grained and shaly and is overlain by glacial till. A little further downstream the colour becomes purplish and some horizons are limy and very fossiliferous with a mainly brachiopod fauna e.g. Pentamerus oblongus. The dip is 10°-19° SE. In brook bank beside public footpath.  Wellies are advisable to gain close up access. RIGS Yes. Designation because this is a good exposure of Pentamerus Beds which is reasonably accessible. Such exposures are not common in this area and the site has potential for study. The typical fossil fauna can be seen. Glacial drift cover is also clearly visible here. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0991 SO 539 927 Longville to Stanway Road - Rushbury Track/roadside Silurian: Wenlock Series: Farley Member: Coalbrookdale Formation NW-facing scarp slope of Wenlock Edge. Several exposures from the foot of the hill to the top are exposed in a road cutting which rises steeply from the road itself. Alternating fine grained limestones and buff mudstones were easily visible; thickness of beds varyies from 25-70 mm. The mudstones are weak and disintegrating. Taken to be representative of the Farley Member.  However although the base of the overlying Much Wenlock Limestone is described as 'sharp' and occurring where the first continuous and regular limestone bed appears this was far from clear. Signs of nodular beds higher up in the sequence were seen. There is a profusion of vegetation obscuring the exposures and the site has clearly been deteriorating. There was a distinct difference between what was actually observed at this site and what can be seen according to the literature. Beside public road RIGS Yes. Already a geological SSSI. The SSSI report points out that these exposures allow correlations to be made between Shropshire's standard sections for the Wenlock and overlying Ludlow Series. Graptolites found here have been instrumental in dating the base of the Wenlock Limestone. In addition their presence has provided a correlation between the base of the Wenlock Limestone of Wenlock Edge and that of the Ludlow anticline. This correlation is based on the presence of the graptolite Monograptus ludensis which was once taken to be an indicator of the base of the Ludlow Series. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0992 SO 5462 9055 Hopescross Quarry (disused) Silurian: Aymestry Group: Upper Ludlow Shales. Sheet 166. At foot of the dip slope of Wenlock Edge. The quarry lies in a scarp slope of harder rocks trending WNW to N. The left-hand face appears to be a WSW trending joint surface and shows a compactly bedded siltstone with fossiliferous limestone bands. Weathering has now revealed fine depositional detail including some slump bedding. This left-hand face is truncated on the right by a small displacement N-S fault to the right of which are a number of smaller subsiduary faces. The quarry floor is flat and free of rubbish and shows relatively little talus; what there is is very fossiliferous. It is likely (see ref. 1) that this quarry shows in its lower part beds of the Aymestry Group becoming transitional into Upper Ludlow Shales. Main face 9 m high and 20 m long. Brachiopods; Bryozoa; Gastropods; Tentaculites. Three metres of bedded silty limestones with some siltstone beds overlain by 6 m of bedded calcareous flags with limestone beds and nodules. The overall impression of this quarry is that the faces are clear and easily examined. Siltstones are irregularly bedded in places with clay whilst elsewhere on the face the bedding is thin and distinct. The dip is approx. 12°. Higher up the beds are thicker and more regular. There is a prominent joint or fault in the right-angled corner. On private land via a gate into a pasture. From road junction on B4368 at Hopecross (SO548905) follow minor road to north; bending NW; quarry is on LHS after 200 m. Limited parking; best on main road B4368. RIGS Yes. Shows the transition between Aymestry Group limestones and calcareous Upper Ludlow Shales in an exposure that is in good condition with fine sedimentary detail some slumping; slight faulting and several fossiliferous bands. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0993 SO 5685 9845 The Leasowes - Hughley Stream/brook Silurian: Llandovery Series: Hughley Shales and Wenlock Series: Buildwas Formation. Along Hughley Brook at the foot of Wenlock Edge. At this site the lithological change from Hughley Shales to Buildwas Formation is seen in a colour change from mottled green grey and purple to olive-buff and grey above. The transition over a metre or so is accompanied by a decrease in the number of hard siltstones in the sequence and replacement by calcilutites and nodules (Bassett et al.). Although it was possible to see the Buildwas strata there seemed to be no sign of the purple Hughley Shales and the boundary could not be convincingly identified. The strata dips 15° E and a distinct horizon with nodules of hard grey limestone was seen. The nodules were fine grained and up to 750 mm in length; some were rounded. A boulder ridge crossed the brook in one place. Above were thin irregularly-bedded soft mudstones dissected by joints (brown and olive in colour). At the top of the bank the rock was very weathered and crumbling but full of tiny brachiopods. Below the nodular layer there was a more shaly mudstone; grey and splits irregularly. There was no sign of any even slightly purple shales and without damaging the bank further attempts to establish the position of the boundary (said to be 50 mm wide) had to be abandoned. A white soft clay (possibly bentonite) was observed 20 m downstream. Via fields in private ownership RIGS Yes. Designation because this is a globally significant site in one of the most important SSSIs in the county. The stratotype section (of international importance since it defines the Llandovery/Wenlock boundary) is also the base of the Buildwas Formation and is coincident with the stratotype base of the Wenlock Series and its lower Sheinwoodian stage. There is also a rich fossil fauna including graptolite zone fossils. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0994 SO 573 987 Hughley Brook - Gippols Dingle (SW) Bank Silurian: Wenlock Series: Wenlock Shales: Buildwas Formation. Sheet 152. Between Harley and Hughley the brook is considered the type area for the Buildwas Formation. At confluence of Hughley Brook and a tributary from the NW. A good exposure of alternating blocky (250 mm thick) horizons and slightly recessed softer layers (150 mm). The exposure is 3-4 m high and extends 10 m in length. The thinner layers consist of olive shaly mudstones with abundant tiny fossil fragments (even complete specimens) but (although crammed in the rock) they are not easily identifiable except with expert knowledge. The resistant blocky layers are hard and crystalline mid-grey in colour and clearly calcareous. At the base of the exposure the shales become more tabular and lime-rich. The strata dip at about 20° SE. This exposure is the most calcareous of the ones seen in the locality. On private land down tributary of Hughley Brook; 10m W of public bridleway RIGS Yes. Designation because this is an excellent example of the Buildwas Formation within its type area; one which can be studied easily and close to a public bridleway. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0995 SO 5745 9904 Hughley Brook - Gippols Dingle Stream/brook Silurian: Llandovery Series: Hughley Shales and Wenlock Series: Buildwas Formation At south end of Gippols Dingle above Hughley Brook. Here the junction with the overlying Buildwas Formation is seen. There is an upward passage from predominantly purple to bluish-grey mudstone within about 0.5 m.  It is a brookside cliff 3-4 m high and extending for 8 m or so. The base of the exposure consists of mainly purplish mudstones with occasional much harder discontinuous layer of blocks up to 0.75 m long. Below that lies another horizon containing a few scattered blocks about 400 mm across. The mudstone bedding is thin and irregular with some slumping. At 2 m above the base lies a more continuous layer of nodules; some are rounded and others squarer. 3.5 m up from the base there is evidence of another nodular layer. There are several near-vertical joints visible. The mudstones at about the 2 m level are olive brown though the true colours are hard to ascertain because of the covering of algae. The latter mudstones probably belong to the Buildwas Formation and the lower strata to the Hughley Shales but the actual boundary could not be accurately determined. Dip approx 20° SSE. Down tributary of Hughley Brook 60 m S of public footpath on private land. RIGS Yes. Designation because at this site is the junction between Llandovery Hughley Shales and overlying Wenlock Buildwas Formation. Although this is not the standard section it is an important exposure of this boundary along Hughley Brook. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0996 SO 5855 9955 Rowley Farm (WSW) - near The Gippols Stream/brook Silurian: Wenlock Series: Buildwas Beds. Sheet 152. On the bank of Harley Brook on the lower land between Kenley Ridge and Wenlock Edge in Apedale. The brook exposure on the outside of a meander is 5 m long up to 0.5 m high and also goes below water level. Small limestone nodules are found both here and scattered upstream. The rock consists of a grey fine-grained weak shale which includes fragments of very small brachiopods. Near public footpath. RIGS Yes. Designation because this is a valuable site providing information for establishing the Llandovery/Wenlock boundary along the brook and should be studied with other sites nearby. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
0997 SO 5865 9970 Rowley Farm (W) - near The Gippols Bank Silurian: Wenlock Series (near Llandovery junction): Buildwas Beds. Sheet 152 On low lying ground along Harley Brook in Apedale. Gently dipping grey-brown siltstones are exposed just above brook level which here have a flat slabby appearance. The exposure is very difficult to examine in detail because of a deep water pool just in front of it. A large 80 mm mould of a fossil orthocone was found in the siltstone here. On private land. Difficult to examine closely because of depth of brook; wellingtons needed. RIGS Yes. Designation because this is a useful site for piecing together the evidence to establish the Llandovery/ Wenlock boundary in this locality. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1000 SJ 256 298 Racecourse Quarry - Oswestry. Quarry (disused) Carboniferous: Namurian: Cefn-y-fedw Sandstone (Millstone Grit) Old quarry with much undergrowth; some limited sections currently accessible. Beds of variable sandstone - very hard to very soft; thick to thin layers of fine-grained to coarse and pebbly sandstones. 9 m wide X 10 m high X 5 m deep. Brown to cream variable quartzitic silts; sandstones & grits. Some beds appear to be chert cemented. Also leached or decalcified layers with fossil casts. Casts of productus sp. and spirifer sp. brachiopods. Quartz predominant; some calcareous cemented sandstones. Dip 25° E.  Part of huge deltaic complex of Millstone Grit deposited in shallow water high energy environment. From Oswestry take B4580 to Rhydycroesau; at cross-roads after 2 miles take left turn sign-posted Racecourse Car Park. After 3/4 mile fork right RIGS Yes. Part of the huge deltaic complex of Millstone Grit deposited in shallow water high energy environment. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1001 SJ 265 213 Pen-y-Foel Lane - Llanymynech. Cutting (road/railway) Ordovician: Caradocian Exposure is on 'leeward' side of roche moutonée Dark greenish-grey partly indurated shales with thicker (up to 150 mm) flaggy sometimes micaceous and/or silty mudstones. Poorly developed jointing seen in places. A new exposure 5 m X 2 m and unweathered appeared in October 1996 with similar lithology 30 m wide. New exposure yielded several brachiopods and indeterminate fossils; dip 78° NE (on S. flank of Berwyn Dome). Close to unconformity with overlying Lower Carboniferous. PALAEOENVIRONMENT: Deep water facies on fringe of Welsh Basin. From cross-roads in Llanymynech take Oswestry road but fork left after 250 m. Exposure is then 120 m along lane. RIGS Yes. Good section of Caradoc mudstones Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1004 SJ 275 255 Savin railway cutting Cutting (road/railway) Carboniferous: Namurian: Millstone Grit (Cefn-y-Fedw sst.) Small fault scarps; well delineated; a short distance north along SJ27752560 - SJ27902600 (L). Also see Geol. Survey map Sheet 137 A series of intermittent exposures of variable hard to soft sandstone and siltstones with some shaley partings. Some quarrying and enlargement of the cutting on east side. Total section along FP extends from 120 metres to 260 metres from road access point. There are two main locations: (a) 200 m north of road and (b) 120 m north of road. Further intermittent exposures of sandstone and siltstone between. Locality 'a' has good exposures of hard white fine-grained sandstone with some calcareous bands and appears to be leached in places. Beds vary from thin (20-30 mm thick) to thick (1 m). At south end can be seen an undersurface of a reddish-brown hard rounded pebble bed. Locality 'b' has fewer features; mainly massive white fine-grained sandstone with some … (entry incomplete) From A5 from Shrewsbury then B4396 to Llynclys crossroads at SJ282241. Continue over on A495 for 1 km; turn right at Whitehaven on minor road for about 1 km northwards; passing 'Sweeney Fen' on LHS. Take first turning left along lane for 200 m in dip and park on narrow verge just past cottage on RHS. Parking space is very limited. Footpath is ROW; some minor dumping. Access is via ROW as marked on SJ22/32. RIGS Yes. The Savin Railway Cutting is designated a RIGS as the most complete section available of the lower Cefn-y-Fedw Sandstone in NW Shropshire; and for its demonstration of marginal deltaic sedimentation and diagenetic processes with relevance to educational and scientific studies. Itinerary; education; schools especially re- local interest use. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1005 SJ 306 009 Lower Wood Dingle Stream/brook Ordovician: Llandeilo: Meadowtown Formation; Ordovician: Llandeilo: Rorrington Shale Formation Proceed to Meadowtown on minor roads S of B4499. Note site of… (entry incomplete) RIGS Yes. This location offers an accessible alternative for the widely publicised; but now unuseable; Meadowtown Quarry - the type locality for Meadowtown Formation within the Ordovician of the Shelve Inlier; with the added bonus of a section through the overlying Rorrington Shale Formation. The site designated a RIGS to ensure continuation of this accessibility for teaching and research purposes. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1006 SJ 353 146 Alberbury Road cutting Cutting (road/railway) Permian: Alberbury Breccia; Permian: Bridgnorth Sandstone Cutting is through ridge formed of more erosion resistant rocks; this ridge may be truncated by faults For much of its length the sides of this cutting are obscured by vegetation and only at the western end are there visible and examinable exposures. These hint at the potential hidden beneath the vegetation cover. On the south side is a good section of red fluviatile sandstone; fine grained with with fine cross laminations. At its top is a clear erosion surface with a small wash-out and this in turn has an eroded top to be succeeded by a coarse grain stone which leads upward into mixtures of sandstone and conglomeratic breccia. Dip is to the north-east and the section is partly replicated on the north side with thick fluviatile sandstone and lenses of conglomeratic breccia. Also on the north side there is a down-faulted block of paler pebble free sandstone; 3 metres wide; suggestive of the overlying aeolian Bridgnorth Sandstone. Cutting is 130 metres long and; on average 4 metres high. Exposure at west end on south side is 10 metres wide and 4 high. Exposure on north side is 15 metres long and 4 high. No fossils found. Uniform dip ca. 15° NE. On main road heading west through village. There is considerable danger within the cutting from passing traffic; only the section on the south side at the western end can be safely examined. Limited parking RIGS Yes. The cutting designated a RIGS for its potential as a site showing the sedimentary features of a high energy fluviatile regime so demonstrating the extensive and rapid erosion which must have taken place at the end of the Carboniferous period. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1007 SJ 360 143 Alberbury Track/roadside Permian: Alberbury Breccia; Carboniferous: Erbistock Group: Alberbury Breccia The Alberbury Breccia and associated rocks; being relatively erosion resistant; form a marked E-W ridge between Alberbury & Rowton. This has a stepped cross-section reflecting effects of softer strata according to ref.1 The southern edge of the car park exposes a well bedded and distinctly tabular sequence of dark red weathering breccia. Individual blocks are widely deployed in the old stone walls for walled garden houses and the church. Centre of village just north of Shrewsbury road. Car park by village hall; permission should be sought RIGS Yes. This location designated a RIGS as the most easily accessible exposure of the distinctive Alberbury Breccia which so clearly demonstrates the extensive and rapid erosion which must have taken place at the end of the Carboniferous Period. Potential use for small parties with supervision. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1018 SJ 610 102 Overley Hill Cutting (road/railway) Precambrian: Uriconian; rhyolites Construction of the A5 by-pass has created a road cutting revealing 100 metre long and 3 metre high sections in Uriconian Rhyolites. The faces are fresh and unweathered and show fine texture and a 3-D ramification of slip and joint planes. The exposures are within the same fault block as that of the Lea Rock inlier described as red and purple rhyolites with flow-banding and spherulitic structure. In conjunction with the near-by Leaton Quarry this site relates to the Precambrian rhyolite/tuff fabric of the Wrekin hill. Report of 15/01/2002 (Christine Rayner): A relatively fresh exposure of mainly pink rhyolite with some grey tuffs; often brecciated along fracture zones. The north side was examined as the south was in dense shadow with detail hard to see. The rhyolite displays excellent flow-banding and spherulitic structures have been recognised in the rock. The exposure is broken by much faulting as well as the shattering due to excavation for road construction. Much slippage is evident; resulting from the position of the exposure in a fairly narrow fault zone; part of the Church Stretton fault system. Many near parallel faults can be identified and also larger; curved  sheared surfaces. Slickensiding occurs as do a number of near vertical mineral veins which appear to contain barytes with hematite; the latter giving a purple hue to the surfaces in places. The exposure demonstrates a series of bedded lavas; the dip being at 40° SW. By way of the ‘Shropshire Way’ official public foot-path which crosses the A5 by-pass at the eastern end of the cutting. Some danger from proximity of fast moving traffic; at quiet times a vehicle could be parked RIGS Yes. A conspicuous road-side feature on the A5 by-pass showing the rock (rhyolite) of which the Wrekin Hill (dominant on the sky-line to the south) is mainly composed. The site designated a RIGS in recognition of a latter-day aesthetic juxtaposition. The site has intrinsic worth for the freshness of its exposures which clearly demonstrate the internal shattering which takes place in a large viscous rhyolite lava flow as it slowly cooled and solidified to a brittle glassy consistency. Mineralogy/Petrology
1020 SJ 638 027 Ackland's Coppice Track/roadside Silurian: Tickwood Beds and Wenlock Limestone. Dip 5° SSW. Apparently conformable transition between stages Deeply incised stream just to south The lower 15 metres of the section shows grey argillaceous limestone weathering brown. This is generally massive but irregularly bedded with a nodular component. There are a number of distinct shale bands; one of which lies immediately above the pronounced terrace which has been engineered at mid-height. Some strong joint planes are present cutting across nodules. Only a sparse fauna is present. The terrace is cut just below the thickest of the shale bands - some 250 mm.  Above; the limestone character changes to become distinctly crystalline although still nodular and irregularly bedded. This limestone is notably fossiliferous; especially a scattering of large corals. It is here considered that the terrace marks the transtion between lower Tickwood Beds and Wenlock Limestone. 170 m wide; lower part 15 m high to terrace; above terrace 4 m of rock then 10 m graded slope. Sparse brachiopods & trilobites in Tickwood Beds. Rich fauna of corals; strophmenoids; gastropods; etc in Wenlock Limestone. Along the A4169 Much Wenlock to Buildwas road; about mid-way along the newly excavated cutting RIGS Yes. The site designated a RIGS for its vivid demonstration of changes in lithology and fauna between Tickwood Beds and overlying Wenlock Limestone facies within the Wenlock Series; for which this general area provides the International Standard. (It may provide a substitute for the SSSI of Farley Dingle insofar as this was affected by the recent road-works.) Itinerary; A-level studies; limestone environments & fossils Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1022 SJ 643 096 Ercall Hill Quarry (disused) Precambrian: Uriconian Volcanics. Cambrian: Wrekin Quartzite: Comley Beds Ercall Hill  65m At the southern end of the Ercall are 5 quarries; now disused; which are of great geological interest. The unconformity between Cambrian and Precambrian rocks is exposed. Radiometric dating of the latter; particularly the granophyre; generates controversy about the absolute age of the base of the Cambrian. A variety of igneous rocks; rhyolite lavas and pyroclastic materials; dolerite dykes and the distinctive pink boss-like intusion of granophyre are exposed. The sedimentary rocks include conglomerates; breccio-conglomerates; quarz arenites and glauconitic sandstones/siltstones of Lower Cambrian age; typical of a sequence deposited during a marine transgression. The upper quarries provide excellent opportunities to examine rock relationships; fault; joint structures and dip/strike. Many smaller scale sedimentary structures can be observed; e.g. ripple marks; cross bedding; fining-upward sequences. Igneous flow-banded and spherulitic structures are present in the rhyolite. In addition to the quarries which are a SSSI; the rest of the Ercall is of geological importance. At the N end; close to the M54; small exposures of rhyolitic tuffs can be seen and persistent searching on the hillside to the west of the main footpath brings evidence of white kaolin clay weathered from feldspar in the igneous rocks. Car parking areas on the west side make use of small former quarries in the granophyre. The view points at the top of the hill by the main footpath provide the opportunity to relate the Ercall rocks with the younger rocks to the east. Open access. Car parking at the Forest Glen opposite the Wrekin but there are small car parks along the west side. RIGS Yes. An outstanding locality with easy access designated a RIGS in its entireity as it exemplifies a range of rocks and structures reflecting a calc-alkaline volcanic environment and subsequent marine transgression. Even more important are the visible exposures of the Precambrian/Cambrian unconformable boundary. Good for large parties. Scope for varying levels of interpretation. Useful for a study of rock relationships and a range of igneous and sedimentary rocks /structures. Structure and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1024 SJ 645 087 Maddock's Hill Quarry Quarry (disused) Ordovician: Tremadoc: Shineton Shales; intruded by Camptonite. The material extracted from this quarry is usually identified as Camptonite and described as a thick sill intruded into Tremadoc age Shineton Shales. The site has long been known as a collecting ground for graptolites; particularly Dictyonema; examples of which can be found among the shale debris. The quarry better displays the physical effects consequent upon the forcing of an igneous intrusion into bedded shales; the latter are locally baked but more impressive tongues and pipes of Camptonite are evident and there is much contortion and over-turning of the country rock. This is less marked at the NE end of the quarry where basal Carboniferous Lydebrook Sandstone can be seen. Graptolites esp. Dictyonema flabelliforme. In this area Shineton Shales dip ca. 10° SE; the intrusion has caused a very local increase in dip to near vertical or even overturning in the SE corner behind the large vertical ‘wall’. Exposures of Camptonite are massive and well jointed. The outcrop has a SW-NE trend parallelling the major faults in this area. There is an unconformable cover of Lydebrook Sandstone marginally conglomeratic at the NE end of the quarry. From Forest Glen take road NE to Little Wenlock; access to edge of quarry by public footpath RIGS Yes. The site designated a RIGS as a long established collecting ground for the characteristic Dictyonema graptolite; its display of a wealth of features consequent upon a major intrusion into shales and for its demonstration of the major unconformity at the base of the Carboniferous in this area. Its accessibility and very generous dimensions are particularly relevant to a teaching situation with large groups. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1044 SO 292 833 Bicton (NNE) - Clun Quarry Silurian: Clun Forest Formation This quarry has recently been re-excavated for hard-core which is now piled up against the main face and this is much broken. General dip is WNW (300°) at around 20° with local steepening and some flexure. The lowest part of the succession is to the right beyond the area of excavation. Here are 1.5 m of massive bedded siltstone containing a single elliptical ‘cobble’ adjacent to a zone of apparent slumping. This is succeeded by 2 m of irregular flaggy bedding with small localised disturbance of the bedding. There is then a 1 m thickness of slumping of an intensity which approaches a mass debris flow. There follows 4 m of alternating massive and flaggy beds with a 20 mm thick band of Platyschisma helicites in situ. A further 6 m of beds are exposed in the upper part of the excavated section where at least one 50 mm thick band of Platyschisma is found in situ. To the left and below is abundant talus from which was recovered further examples of Platyschisma up to 80 mm thick; a case of fine ripple marking with an amplitude of 7.5 mm and examples of sole markings. The mapping of ref.1 places this locality on the boundary between Cefn Einion and Clun Forest formations. It is here considered that the locality lies wholly within the basal part of the Clun Forest Formation previously known as the Green Downtonian. (A second visit in Sept.1997 confirmed presence of Clun Forest Formation with examples of Platyschima beds; re-survey made 3/10/1997).  Exposures 1 to 4 m high and up to 5 m wide. Best approach is by public footpath from T-junction in Bicton at SO290828; this traverses the flank of the ridge leading down to the Bicton quarry where there are numerous small exposures of Downtonian. Quarry is alongside a public footpath but neither this fact nor this report should be taken as meaning permission is not required. Parking in Bicton at T-junction; all other in Clun. RIGS Yes. Lying just above the significant Ludlow/Pridoli boundary within the Silurian System this site designated a RIGS as showing evidence that gross changes occurred in sedimentary conditions at that boundary. Some value for further research is here ascribed to this site. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1047 SO 310 740 Holloway Rocks - Stowe Natural exposure Silurian: Rhychonella and Chonetes Beds of Stamp. Silurian: Whitcliffe Beds or Cefn Einion Formation of current nomenclature Glacial features including moraines; incipient corrie formation; hanging valley and moraine dammed pool The locality comprises about 1 sq.km of hillside best examined from the public bridleway leading from Stowe Church to Holloway Rocks. Between the church and the first gate are numerous small exposures in bioturbated grey siltstone which show mainly Fuchsella & Camarotoechia and correspond to Rhynchonella beds of Stamp. Past the gate a quarry gives good examples of typical fauna of these beds with Serpulites longisimus particularly prevalent and Protochonetes ludloviensis specifically absent. The track then ascends steeply to a second gate and stile beneath the steep slopes of Holloway Rocks. Here the rock now shows the full complement of brachiopods typical of Upper Whitcliffe beds in this area; viz. Protochonetes; Camarotoechia & Salopina lunata; these beds now continue right to the summit of Stowe Hill above where they are; again typically; yellow weathering. It is from the position of the stile that the glacial features may best be appreciated. The frost-shattered exposures of the scarp above which sweeps round towards the west suggests the early stages in corrie formation; hidden around a corner; also to the west; is a small stream whose bed has been truncated to form a hanging valley feature. Most notable are the crests of three distinct moraine ridges which trend SW towards the main valley of the River Teme below (various moraines impinge upon the road in this valley and a good section of morainic material can be seen in the bank excavated behind Mill House at SO310729).  Behind the three moraine ridges is a small perfectly circular pool (at SO311742) evidently impounded behind these moraines on the ‘corrie’ floor. Overall the view southwards from here is impressive. The hills across the river valley occupy ground mapped by Holland in the 1950's; in particular the observatory identifies Llan wen Hill which provides the type section for the uppermost Whitcliffe beds in this area. Geological Summary (with keywords). Lithologies: siltstones; occasionally calcareous. Palaeontology: limited fauna of brachiopods; bivalves; orthocones and (Serpulites). Structure: bedded strata dips gently to NE forming a scarp feature; this has been over steepened with beginning of corrie and hanging valley formation. Palaeoenvironment: sediments laid down on shelf/basin slope below wave base but shallow enough to suffer bioturbation and to accumulate some allogenic fauna. Best from Stowe Church adjacent to which is a car park. Access via public bridleway. RIGS Yes. The area designated a RIGS on account of its clear demonstration of the principal glacial features of corrie and moraine with obvious relevance to recent ice ages. It also displays an informative section through a 150 metres thickness of shelf slope sediments. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1049 SO 314 797 Rock of Woolbury - Clun Quarry (disused) Silurian: Cefn Einion Formation (upper part); Silurian: Upper Ludlow (Upper Whitcliffe?) Llan-wen beds The site is an extensively quarried depression now very much vegetated. Visible rock faces are mainly confined to the northern margin where a line of buttresses trends NE-SW varying in height from 2 to 8 metres. These show a generally alternating sequence of calcareous siltstones and mudstones of 50 to 200 mm thickness and somewhat irregularly bedded. However because weathering has been prolonged the display of sedimentary detail is exceptionally fine with cross and convolute lamination climbing ripples mega ripples swale bedding and boudin(?) formation all identifiable. The band of well jointed compact siltstone with false bedding identifed by Holland in the middle of the Llan-wen Hill beds appears to be present. There is also appreciable variety in the range of lithologies. Some faces would be ideal candidates for recording a stratigraphical log. Buried beneath a veneer of moss and loose vegetation are extensive areas of talus and loose blocks which show abundant examples of scattered fossils usually decalified but entire in freshly broken material. There is adequate material to allow for the recording of a quantitative fossil list. Overall area is roughly rectangular 250 metres by 100 metres. The northern rim 250 m long displays several buttresses 2 to 8 metres high and 2 to 25 metres wide. There are numerous other small exposures. Indications of a diverse fauna with scatterd brachiopods bryozoa and serpulites. Possibilities for an extensive collection to show an Upper Ludlow fauna. Gentle dip around 5° SW.  ‘Evidence of shallowing in a general irregularity of bedding frequent current bedding and occasional ripple marks’. The quarry is totally surrounded by a plantation; mainly fir but small oak near quarry rim.  Best approach is by road from Clun via Woodside towards Obley taking a north going track into the plantation from the sharp corner at SO315793. This track bends to the right after 250 metres and in a further 140 metres a side track leads downhill in a NNE direction; after 80 metres take a narrower track through fir trees to quickly reach the eastern side of the quarry where access is easiest. Whilst the area appears generally much used for walking and horse riding there are no public footpaths marked on OS maps and right of access should not be assumed. Permission of owner(s) should be obtained beforehand. Ownership has not yet been established. There is obvious loose rock in the quarry faces and hard hats should be worn. There is absolutely no reason to hammer the quarry faces where detail has only become apparent after years of weathering. Only limited parking at the corner SO315793.  All other in Clun. RIGS Yes. The quarry known as the Rock of Woolbury designated a RIGS on account of: (1) its wealth of sedimentary detail in a sequence of shallow water siltstones; (2) its research potential for a full fossil list of the Upper Cefn Einion Formation in this area; (3) its possible uniqueness in the demonstration of a lithological and faunal change within the Cefn Einion Formation of this area; prior to the major changes at the Silurian Ludlow/Pridoli boundary. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1050 SO 318 837 Hoar Wood - Bury Ditches - Clun Track/roadside Silurian: Cefn Einion Formation and Clun Forest Formation; Silurian: Upper Whitcliffe and Downtonian; Silurian: Upper Ludlovian and Pridoli The section forms the east bank of a roughly N-S track. The dip is to the south and the section is best examined in ascending sequence from north to south beginning at a pronounced bend in the track. Just to the east of this a small quarry shows typical bioturbated and rather featureless grey siltstones of the Cefn Einion beds. In distinct contrast the first exposure of the section is of sheet-like deposits of allogenic fossils which include brachiopods; gastropods; trilobites and occasional ostracodes. The next 200 metres expose a rich sequence of bedded units showing sole marks; rippling; erosion surfaces all indicative of a high energy environment which was probably above storm and/or wave-base and shallowing. There then occur a number of horizons containing Platyschisma & Modilopsis; one bed of the former forming a thick rotten stone. These mark the base of the Downtonian and over the next 50 metres is a development of very calcareous beds approaching an actual limestone in composition. Continuing on; a small hiatus intervenes due to faulting and then there is a quarry exposing well bedded Downton Castle Sandstone; with small flecks of plant remains visible on bedding planes. Following the track which has now turned SE; the sandstone becomes more massive and then is succeeded by a hard siltstone; which may represent overlying Temeside Shales although this has not been confirmed. Overall section is 500 metres long and typically 2 to 3 metres high. Open access within a Forestry Commission area. By well made forest tracks and foot-paths. Nearest parking is at Colstey on A488 Clun to Bishop's Castle road RIGS Yes. This section; with its easy accessibility; designated a RIGS as an exemplary example of the Silurian Ludlovian/Downtonian transition; particularly rich in fossil and sedimentary features. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1051 SO 323 933 More Quarry (older) Quarry (disused) Ordovician: Hope/Stapeley Beds of Llanvirn Series; intruded by dolerite (?gabbro) Among the late Ordovician intrusions this area to the east of the More Quarry was previously an SSSI. The site is a small quarry to the west of the disused but dangerous main quarry. It is notable for the extended contact feature showing a 150 mm chilled margin of the massive coarsely crystalline dolerite(?gabbro) and hardened country rock. The latter is Hope Shales and/or Stapeley Volcanics. There are suggestions in ref(1) that the intrusion may be overlain by Silurian. Some variation in the identity of intrusive rock variously described as gabbro; dolerite or gabbroic dolerite; margins are chilled. No fossils found; the area of the descheduled SSSI to the east of the main quarry is described as fossiliferous Hope Shales. Massive intrusion of indeterminate form; slickensides. Baking of country rock; chilling of margins. Via A488 to point about 2 km N of Lydham. Limited parking on E side of A488. RIGS Yes. The site is designated a RIGS as a good and well displayed example of the features developed in the contact zones between a large igneous intrusion and sedimentary country rocks. It also provides a specific example of one a number of large basic intrusions which occur in this area; notably the Laccolith of Corndon Hill and the Picrite of Cwm Mawr. Mineralogy/Petrology
1055 SO 375 942 Upper Gravenor - Wentnor Quarry (disused) Dolerite intrusion within Precambrian: Wentnor Series The quarry is excavated in a large linear intrusion of dolerite which can be traced up the hill to the west for a distance of 0.5 km.  The  intrusion cuts across the dip of the fine sediments of the Bridges Group and is therefore probably a dyke albeit quite thick. The quarry has an unusual form having been excavated as an L-shaped cutting some 3 to 4 metres wide and up to 5 metres deep. The freshest rock is massive fresh and crystalline and is exposed on the left wall of the excavation. It appears to contain large 1 metre scale xenoliths of country rock which are clearly baked to a black colour. Similar xenoliths appear in the right wall but in the furthermost part of the ‘L’ this side shows the dolerite in a different form. A a slope appears with many apparently spheroidally weathering boulders irregularly disposed of different sizes and not obviously related to any jointing pattern. The boulders are the result of deep chemical weathering (possibly Tertiary in age). In other parts there is developed curvi-linear columnar jointing chilled margins and country rock xenoliths. From B4383; 2 km south of Bridges cross-roads; take a minor road SSW RIGS Yes. The quarry designated a RIGS as an exemplar of an intrusion; both baking and incorporating xenoliths of country rock as well as showing features of columnar jointing chilled margins and spheroidal weathering. Mineralogy/Petrology
1060 SO 391 874 Hillend (West of Farm) Track/roadside Precambrian: Synalds Group of Longmyndian - Purple shales; Silurian: Upper Llandovery; conglomerate and grit. Small exposure off road at base of hillside. The deposition of early Silurian strata on a block of Precambrian sediments is known from a sequence of exposures between Plowden and Little Stretton. Mapped in detail by Whittard (1932) who identified features including sea-stacks beach deposits and pebble bars. The only direct recognition of this work is a SSSI at Hillend where a quarry in Pentamerus Beds is designated for its micro- and macro- fauna content (ref. 5). This site (to the east of the SSSI) convincingly shows the unconformity with Upper Llandovery age grits which are occasionally fossiliferous resting with marked discordance on eroded purple shales of the Synalds Group. Fossils rare in grits; brachiopods in higher beds. Precambrian shales have vertical dip and strike NE; basal Silurian grits dip ca. 25° S.  Strong unconformity. Along A489 between Craven Arms and Lydham; ca. 300m. SW of Hillend Cottage. RIGS Yes. Designated as the predominant example of the unconformity which lies at the base of the Silurian in Shropshire and the Borders. It is of particular value since related exposures to the east allow the demonstration of a complete stratigraphic column for strata within the Silurian as far as the cut-off in Wenlock Shales by the Church Stretton fault system. Structure and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1084 SO 421 946 Ashes Hollow -Little Stretton Natural exposure Precambrian: Longmyndian Group: Stretton Series; Stretton Shales; Burway; Synalds and Portway Groups Incised Vee-shaped stream valley with overlapping spurs The valley from Little Stretton (SO441920) to Boiling Well (SO421946) is about 4 km long. There are very many good exposures especially of Burway Lightspout and Synalds Groups. Overall the best exposures (some 21 in number) are fully described in an attached document ‘Precambrian Stretton Series of Ashes Valley Longmynd’ which uses the format of a Geological Itinerary to effect a description. Features covered include crenulation and kink bands in the Stretton Shales brecciation and quartz-filled tension gashes in the Buxton Rock Scree fans; freeze-thaw; possible turbidites and lamination in the Burway Group; greywacke sandstones of Cardingmill Grit; rippling; desiccation cracks; cleavage; cleavage refraction and way-up criteria in Synalds Group; lithic tuff and transverse faulting of vertical strata in Batch Volcanics; joint planes; cut pebbles; slickensiding and fault location in Huckster Conglomerate; cross bedding; erosional base and pick-up clasts in Portway Group. Geological  Summary (with keywords). Lithologies: Indurated mudstones; siltstones; greywacke sandstones; conglomerate; lithic tuffs and dolerite. Petrology: Greywacke; dolerite and volcanic tuffs. Minerals: Quartz. Palaeontology: None. Structure: Steeply dipping limb of a recumbent syncline. Relationships: Conformable sequence of differing lithologies. Palaeoenvironment: Upwards coarsening sequence; possibly progradational through turbidite; delta; alluvial and braided alluvial. From A49 at Church Stretton travel 2 miles to Little Stretton and locate the ‘camping field’ and ford. Open; mainly along public footpath; some over heather clad slopes. 2 inns in Little Stretton; all other in Church Stretton RIGS Yes. Ashes Hollow streamway designated a RIGS as a coherent upwards coarsening sedimentary sequence through most of the Precambrian Stretton Series. It displays a wide diversity of features and is well able to support a geological itinerary. Structure and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1106 SO 444 804 A49 Craven Arms to Onibury Cutting (road/railway) Silurian: Lower Ludlow Shales to Upper Ludlow Shales South of Craven Arms the eastern side of the A49 cuts through a number of spurs providing a sequence of exposures from Lower Ludlow Shales through the Aymestry Group to Upper Ludlow Shales. Distances are given in kilometres south from cross-roads in Craven Arms and (in brackets) north from level crossing at Onibury. 2.53-2.73 (1.83-1.63) Lower Ludlow Shales; 3.07-3.27 (1.39-1.19) Aymestry Limestone; much attenuated but good transition to Upper Ludlow; 3.81-3.91 (0.55-0.45) Upper Ludlow Shales; 4.02 (0.34) Upper Ludlow Shales in entrance to quarry. Exposures are generally fossiliferous and dip gently to SE. Conformable sequence. South from Craven Arms; parking alongside A49 difficult; best to walk sections starting from entrance to Park Farm SO406802 just south of first section. Hazard of passing traffic is serious for groups RIGS Yes. This section designated as a RIGS to help ensure its survival as a very visible section through that sequence of Shropshire's Silurian strata which determine the topography of a large area of the county. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1109 SO 446 899 Chuney Pool - Acton Scott Bank Ordovician: Acton Scott Group below Limestone. Approaching along the outflow stream-way leading to Chuney Pool this makes an abrupt left turn to reveal a small ravine with a water cascade at the end. Both walls of the ravine expose olive-green micaceous siltstone; dipping c. 20° N. This rock is soft and shows few brachiopod casts and impressions. 2 faces each 20 m long and up to 4 m high. From A49 250 m south of Marshbrook garage (SO442898) take road sign-posted to Acton Scott. Take foot path immediately behind black and white cottage; after 50 m turn right and follow stream-way through woodland. Parking at Marshbrook; Wayside Inn and cafe. Woodland partly used for game birds; some felling. RIGS Yes. Designated as the principal exposure of fossiliferous sediments within the lower part of the Acton Scott Group. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1110 SO 446 914 Wiresytch Quarry - Church Stretton Quarry (disused) Ordovician: Harnage Shales; Longmyndian: Wentnor Series Truncated spur - main valley glacier? The quarry has been excavated at the truncated end of a spur of Precambrian sedimentary rocks (Wentnor Series). However with one small exception the quarry faces are of Ordovician Harnage Shales. Due to degradation and vegetation cover the best face is to the left (NW). This shows flaky shales with occassional bands of a blocky nature. Bedding appears horizontal but is towards the observer. There is much localised distortion possibly due to the proximity of fault F1 of the Church Stretton complex (200 m to W). Within the shales are harder lenses which are fossiliferous and under the hand lens can show a wealth of fine detail. The centre face is much covered with scree but at floor level in the centre is a small block of reddish sandstone; much rotted. This represents the Precambrian basement mapped as Wentnor Series. The actual unconformable contact described in ref.1 as a pebbly sandstone is no longer visible; presumably buried under an overburden of shale talus. The right-hand face is totally obscurred by vegetation. 15 m high; faces total 100 m. Rich fauna; somewhat delicate. Dip 20° S; bedding distortions. Palaeoenvironment: Shoreline and subsidence. 200 m east along track leaving A49 at SO444915 opposite Little Stretton. Parking in lay-by on A49; Ask permission of occupants of Oakfields RIGS Yes. The quarry designated a RIGS as it clearly shows the nature of the unconformity at the base of the Ordovician and for the specific character of the fossils present in the Harnage Shales - currently the subject of research by Professor W.Dean of Cardiff University. Structure and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1112 SO 446 961 Batch Valley - All Stretton Natural exposure Precambrian: Longmyndian: Synalds Group (Batch Volcanics). TYPE LOCALITY: For the Batch Volcanics with the Synalds Group Four ash bands have been identified within the predominantly purple shales of the Synalds Group. They outcrop across the ridge which rises westward from the junction of Johnathan's Hollow and Long Batch; the lowest band also outcrops continuously along the ridge rising NE from the same junction. In this latter situation the outcrop well shows the numerous small transform faults (both dextral and sinistral) which affect the outcrop of the steeply dipping Longmyndian sediments. As part of this survey the position of the outcrops of the 4 bands along the western ridge has been remeasured. The bands are individually described in the table taken from ref.1. Band A (the Andesitic Ash) forms the lower part of the second rock step at the start of the ridge. Only the purple facies is visible; the green variant being turf covered. As the dip is steep to the NW the outcrop cannot be traced further to the west. The ridge has a trend of 300° and an average slope of about 30°. Ascending its crest band B occurs after 233 ft. (1 foot = 0.30 metres) and band C after 294 ft. just above the second of a pair of small trees. Band D outcrops after 401 ft. and the base of the Lightspout Group occurs after 464 ft. where the angle of the ridge eases somewhat and crags become much less frequent. Band C (the White Ash) can be traced westward across the face of the hill as far as the entrance to Long Batch. The NE ridge has a trend of about 45° and along it band A (the purple Andesitic Ash) can be traced for about 150 m. Between the 4 ash bands the purple shales often show a polished fluting decorated with arrays of fine pits which have been ascribed to rain spots. From All Stretton tarmac road leads past Village Hall to car park after 400 m.  Thereafter a track continues 800 m to Johnathan's Hollow. The Long Mynd has open access. Shop Pub and Hotel in All Stretton. RIGS Yes. Type Section for the Longmyndian Batch Volcanics; illustrates the geometric relations encountered in mapping dipping strata in a hilly environment and for the demonstration of volcanic activity within Longmyndian times. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1119 SO 450 895 Acton Scott (W of Church) Quarry (disused) Ordovician: Acton Scott Group; Limestone member The quarry lies on the south slope of a low hill of more resistant strata. This is in fact the Acton Scott Limestone; a local feature of the Ordovician succession hereabouts. Quarry sections show gently dipping bedding of fine pale yellow sandstones and siltstone succeeded by ‘limestone’. The best section is in the centre of the main face. Here are massive creamy sandstones of thickness 50-300 mm separated by 25 mm soft pale mudstone partings. However ‘limestone’ is something of a misnomer since no specimen of the rock in this quarry effervesced with hydrochloric acid and its porosity and absence of shell material suggests that it is here a de-calcified sandstone. Fossil material is abundant on bedding planes both within the massive material and at the partings in a 5 m thickness of fine calcareous sandstone. Brachiopod impressions are common on bedding planes. Public footpath from Church Farm to Marshbrook; quarry lies in woodland area 500 m WNW of Church Farm. Large car-park opposite Acton Scott church. Access permission required. RIGS Yes. The quarry designated as a RIGS as the only sizable fossiliferous exposure of the Acton Scott Limestone. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1120 SO 451 907 The Hough (S) streamway - Acton Scott Stream/brook Ordovician: Cheney Longville Flags and Acton Scott Group. TYPE LOCALITY: Ordovician: Actonian: Ragdon Member Exposures of the soft sedimentary rocks in this area are scarce and generally confined to streams. Thus this stream south of the Hough has been chosen in ref.1 as the stratotype for the boundary between the Cheney Longville Formation and the overlying Acton Scott Formation. It is also gives the standard section defining the Ragdon Member of the Acton Scott Formation which also includes the overlying Wistanstow and Henley Members. Proceeding upstream from the stile (see ‘Approach’) the first exposure is a small outcrop of the Wistanstow Member below a cluster of holly trees; it is then about 100 m to where the stream-way becomes more ravine-like. The eastern face shows an almost continuous section in soft buff siltstone. This is bioturbated and so lacks regular bedding planes. It has a rich and diverse fauna and dips to the south so that the sequence descends to the north. In 200 m the ravine begins to open out and a harder flaggy rock with tentaculites appears before the streamway finally emerges onto an open field just short of the road. 200 m long and on average 1 m high; 2 m with excavation. Rich fauna. Dip 20° S. From the road-side 400 m south of The Hough a public footpath heading SW crosses diagonally over a field to cross a stream and stile after c. 250 m.  Exposures are upstream of this point. There is no public right of way along the stream. Limited road-side parking. RIGS Yes. The site designated as a RIGS in order to confer some protection on a significant but fragile stratatype section. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1122 SO 451 935 Cunnery Terrace Track/roadside Precambrian: Longmyndian: Stretton Shales These exposures of Stretton Shales are described as showing thrusting minor folding kink-band and cleavage development. Thrusting is implicit in a near horizontal disturbed zone with intense crumpling of the grey shales. Explicit features are clear kink-bands associated with joint movement slaty cleavage and cleavage refraction. At the furthest point is a dolerite intrusion; its contact with the shales (reportedly faulted) is currently visible alongside the steps ascending to ‘Greenmount’. It shows a vertical plug of rotted brown dolerite with vertical faults seperating from surrounding shales which have suffered even further distortions. Proceeding along Cunnery Terrace exposures are found on the RH side (W) in front of ‘Westville’ (rockery); driveway to ‘Fourways’ and in front of ‘Green Mount’ and in front of  ‘Trefnant’ (further dolerite). 3 sections; up to 2 m high and respectively 10 m; 40 m and 3 m long. No fauna. Distortions of ‘incompetent’ beds. Palaeoenvironment: Deep water; turbidite sequences. From Church proceed south along Church Road turning right into Cunnery Terrace; exposures begin after the sharp LH bend at 200 m. Have respect for private gardens. RIGS Yes. Shows thrusting and minor folding kink-bands and cleavage development Structure
1128 SO 459 955 Buxton Quarry - All Stretton Quarry (disused) Precambrian: Stretton Series: Stretton Shale Group; Buxton Rock; Burway Group. TYPE LOCALITY: Buxton Rock Mapping of the sequence of Longmyndian sediments has required use of disitinctive and persistent beds to act as ‘markers’. A siliceous tuff (green-grey and cherty in appearance) has been used to define the base of a more arenaceous and flaggy Burway Group over lower and generally incompetent Stretton Shales. Buxton Quarry provides the type section. The RHS is dominated by a vertical bedding plane is Stretton Shales (a rock of weakly bedded and monotonous grey mudstone/fine siltstone). Occasional paler bands up to 10 mm thick may mark the presence of volcanic ash fall-outs. The main outcrop of Buxton Rock is in the centre where a rough track ascends steeply to higher levels. The Buxton Rock is recognised by its cherty texture an absence of internal bedding or lamination and with a slightly undulose form. It can be seen to split by shaly horizons into separate units of variable thickness and at least 8 such beds between 200 and 500 mm thick can be identified. The rock has been described as a ‘silico-felspathic slate in concretionary layers’ (ref 4) and as a ‘silicified dust tuff’ (refs  2;3;4). To the left and in the higher parts rocks of the basal Burway Group are seen (notably flaggy bedded with units thickness 50 to 150 mm seperated by thin shale horizons). Slight grading can be detected suggesting younging to the left (W). Thin pale bands 2-3 mm similar to those seen in the Stretton Shales are also present. Quarry is roughly L-shaped; 30 m across long base; 20 m across short and up to 25 m high. Silification and quartz veining. No fossils. Near vertical dipping sequence; strike SW-NE; younging to NW. East part of quarry shows very large bedding plane and similar outcrops are found in a lane just to the west. In All Stretton take lane sign posted to 'Village Hall'; Quarry is on right after 200 metres. Ample parking and shop/pub/hotel in All Stretton. RIGS Yes. Buxton Quarry designated a RIGS as the Type Section for the Buxton Rock; this is a marker horizon for the boundary between lithologically changing rocks of the Stretton Shale Group and the Burway Group within the Precambrian of the Longmynd. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1135 SO 468 821 Bache Quarry (disused) Silurian: Upper Ludlow Shales Fault scarp Quarry lies on a SW facing scarp slope due to the down-throw of the strong SE trending Bache Fault. The quarry face shows an alternation of massive siltstone with some current bedding and bands of vertically jointed calcareous sandstone up to several inches thick. The main feature is however a 0.7 m thick bed showing a text-book example of slumping. This strongly resembles a similar feature in the Whitcliffe quarry type section for the Whitcliffe Stage. There are also some lenses of fossil shells now leached to a ‘rotten-stone’. Face is 30 m long and 4 m high. Brachiopod casts & shells. Gentle dip; modest jointing with conspicuous slumping. From Bache House on minor road between Greenway Cross on B4368 and Burley take public footpath heading SE towards lake; quarry is situated where this path crosses a tarmac drive. Limited parking; other in Craven Arms 2 miles distant. RIGS Yes. This site displays a ‘text-book’ example of slump bedding and is situated on a fault scarp. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1144 SO 473 958 Botvyle Quarry Quarry (disused) Silurian: Lower Ludlow Shales and Aymestry Group. Strata emplaced by effect of strong fault. The quarry lies in a tree-covered spur some 200 m SW of the start of the access drive to ‘Botvyle Barn’. As this drive begins to ascend the spur Lower Ludlow Shale strata are exposed in the left hand bank; better described as flaggy green/grey mudstones these beds progressively change to a nodular limestone which is the main facies of the Aymestry Group beds exposed in the quarry. Typically massive beds up to 3 m thick are separated by grey calcareous mudstone parting of 25-50 mm thickness. These show flute casts and fossil impressions. The limestone nodules weather out to fist-sized cobbles which are usually very fossiliferous; mainly brachiopod shells and casts with much comminuted debris. The whole dips SSE at a high angle 70-80° but without other effects that may have been expected from the proximity of the major Church Stretton Fault F1. Brachiopoda dominant; occasional gastropod; crinoid; bryozoan. Graptolite Monograptus leintwardinensis reported locally ref.(2). Palaeoenvironment: High energy? Cross-roads c. 2 miles north of traffic lights at Church Stretton on A49. At this point take lane to SE sign-posted to Cardington; after 200 m road makes sharp turn to left and a name-plate marks start of access drive to ‘Botvyle Barn’. (Lower Botvyle Farm is further 250 m along road). Parking on A49 verge. Access permission from Lower Botvyle Farm. RIGS Yes. This site comprises the most northerly emplacement of an outlier of Aymestry Group strata Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1145 SO 474 924 Hope Bowdler Track/roadside Ordovician: Harnage Shales. By the footpath sign beneath a tree is a small patch of soft brown shale fragments identified as Harnage Shales. By the gate is what looks like a small outcrop of hard volcanic rock; if so this would represent the Harnage/Uriconian unconformity without the development of a conglomerate. Following the footpath over the stile to the right; the path enters a sunken way; there is another small outcrop of Harnage Shales 30 m on the left. Shales are totally fragmented; no in situ exposure. 150 m south along the Ticklerton road from Hope Bowdler there is a footpath sign on the RHS (W). Parking in Hope Bowdler RIGS Yes.  Designation as a major unconformity of Ordovician Harnage Shales laid down upon a weathered surface of Precambrian Uriconian Volcanics. The former yields a shelly fauna and significant ostracodes have been found. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1149 SO 475 947 Willstone Road Quarry Quarry (disused) Cambrian conformable junction between dipping Lower Comley Sandstone and Wrekin Quartzite Relative erosion rate of volcanic (rhyolites; tuffs; intrusives) and unmetamorphosed sediments. The ‘quarry’ is now a vertical bank; some 1 m high and 10 m long bordering a farm-track. To the right are ca. 8 m of buff-coloured fine-grained sandstone (Lower Comley) whilst to the left are ca. 3 m of grey/white quartzite (Wrekin Quartzite).  The junction between is clearly conformable and strikes due north with a dip 70° E. Both rock types are undistorted and only moderately jointed. Uriconian volcanics outcrop on the hillside to the W and fault F2 is mapped immediately to the NW cutting off the quartzite outcrop. Cursory examination has failed to reveal any fossils. By foot or bike along old road between Willstone Farms (SO491953) and Eastwood; Church Stretton (SO464940). From Willstone; 500 metres beyond Cwms Cottage this road makes a left turn from where a public footpath to Caer Caradoc strikes off to the right (N). Taking this path the site is immediately seen some 50 m to the right (E). From Church Stretton the same point is reached some 700 m beyond the defile between Helmeth and Caradoc Hills. RIGS Yes. Conformable junction between the Lower Comley and the Wrekin Quartzite Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1150 SO 475 951 Caer Caradoc Ridge Natural exposure Precambrian: Uriconian: Ragleth Tuffs; intruded by a dolerite sill. Scarp feature 200 metres SW of the summit is a low col to either side of which outcrops a strong linear feature. This is a well-bedded acidic tuff showing small scale current bedding features. Traced down the hillsides to NW or S it is seen to be underlain and intruded into by a dolerite. Near the ‘col’ the outcrop appears finely bedded; weathers to resemble the summit rhyolites in colour and surface texture; however the ‘bedding’ is much more genuine with beds varying in thickness and grain size and bedding planes lacking slickensiding. Interpreted therefore as a bedded acidic tuff; the dip is to the west around 45°. In detail the bedding shows grading; small folds; closely spaced jointing and features suggestive of slumping and/or de-watering. This is best displayed 60 m south of the col. Before that (at 45 m and 55 m) the tuffs can be seen to be underlain by and intruded into by a dark grey rock identified as dolerite. At 100 m there is clear emergence of this underlying dolerite forming a sill-like contact with the overlying tuffs which is displaced up-slope by a small fault to expose the lower contact. Generally 2 m high extending 200 m to S and 200 m to NW. Structure: Tuffs dip west around 45° and in absence of significant transverse faults form a remarkable linear scarp feature. This linearity may be due to a NW-SE trending fault which separates Ragleth Tuffs from Caer Caradoc Andesites and has itself been intruded with dolerite. From summit walk SW 200 metres to a low col. RIGS Yes. Well bedded acidic tuff Mineralogy/Petrology
1158 SO 477 953 Caer Caradoc Natural exposure Precambrian: Uriconian: Caer Caradoc Rhyolite and an Andesitic lava. TYPE LOCALITY: Caer Caradoc Rhyolite; Caer Caradoc Andesite. Differential erosion of hard resistant rocks of Precambrian basement produced by uplift as a horst. Possible nunatak. The summit of Caer Caradoc within the confines of the Iron Age Hill Fort provides splendid outcrops of rhyolites; variously flow-banded; amygoidal; brecciated and slickensided. An area of andesite (sometimes amygdaloidal) and a small intrusion of dolerite can also be recognised appearing to underlie the rhyolites. The best approach is via the NE ridge where the change on crossing the fort embankment; from dark grey Little Caradoc Basalts to large pink and yellow crags of Caer Caradoc Rhyolite is quite dramatic. At this NE end the exposures display an apparent bedding albeit much contorted twisted and over-turned. On examination the ‘bedding planes’ are generally slickensided and the ‘bedding’ seems more a consequence of the flow of viscous acid lavas. Exposures in the actual summit area are generally massive irregularly jointed and sometimes vesicular. Brecciation of the flows becomes more conspicous as the rhyolite forms ‘ramparts’ to the hill fort on the SE side. A zone of vertical banding intervenes before the ‘gateway’ dominated by a large high block of brecciated material. At this point emerging from beneath the greensward are blocks of fossiliferous Chatwall Sandstone and Quartzite has also been built into the embankment. Just west of the ‘gateway’ are exposures of vesicular Caer Caradoc Andesites which reinforce the impression that the rhyolite forms a comparatively thin bed. Further exposures continue to the south reaching almost to the foot of the steep hillside. No fauna within volcanics but Ordovician fauna in ‘erratics’. Structure: Base of rhyolite flow dips towards SW; Caer Caradoc hill is delineated by strong NE-SW faults and this directional trend can be seen continuing to the NE to encompass Lawley Hill and the Wrekin. The area of Caer Caradoc is some 120 hectares in extent; involves 8 individual stratigraphic rock units and at least 50 individual exposure sites. This was fully surveyed over the course of several days of late Aug and Sep 2001. In view of the large amount of data collected it is convenient to use this ‘description’ field to record what may be regarded as the features of most interest and significance and to append methodology; detail and conclusion as attachments to this report. Principal features: (1)  many exposures of igneous fine-grained acid and basic rocks; instrusives and lavas; together with fine grained bedded tuffs. (2)  a major unconformity whereby the Cambrian Wrekin Quartzite overlies a sub-set of the volcanics. (3)  major exposures of rhyolites showing various degrees of auto-brecciation; slickensiding; flow banding and elongated vesicules. (4)  a folded syncline in bedded tuffs with sufficient exposure to allow dip measurements which confirm that the syncline plunges NW. (5)  visible evidence of doleritic intrusion in the sense of chilled margins and injection into open joints. (6)  a major and very visible normal fault which crosses the axis of the hill suffering change of direction of its surface outcrop. (7)  other faults classified as reverse or thrust; in particular exposure of a possible thrust plane. (8)  significant amounts of sedimentary erratics; Cambrian and Ordovician associated with the hill fort on the summit. Footpaths converge on summit from many directions. The footpath up the NE ridge is not a public right of way. RIGS Yes. Exemplar for Precambrian volcanics. Wealth of other geological features; high scores in all the assessment criteria and scope for a geological itinerary or trail. Education - scope for field examination of wealth of features and for practical exercises. Scientific - nothing seems to have been published since the Geological Survey Memoir (Greig et al 1968).  Some unresolved problems remain; so a possible area for research. Historic - a notable Iron Age Hill Fort with an intriguing geological problem. Aesthetic - superb view points through 360 degrees. Mineralogy/Petrology
1172 SO 483 955 Robins Tump Natural exposure Cambrian: Lower and Upper Comley Sandstones and Grits Situated in an area of fault-bound blocks in which exposures are few but differential erosion rates allow for feature mapping. The summit of this small but conspicuous hillock shows Upper Comley Grits dipping east with Lower Comley Sandstones beneath. The Comley Limestones (which bridge this junction in the Comley Quarry (SO484965)) are absent. It is the site of one of the many excavations carried out by E.S. Cobbold in the course of his elucidation of the stratigraphy of the local complex faulted area. Other excavations were made on the ‘saddle’ to the south and several near the stream at the foot of the northern slope where Lower Comley strata are better exposed. No fossils found - may have been picked clean. An unconformity seperates Lower and Upper Comley strata but this can only be deduced from the exposures; not seen. By paths from the track between Willstone Farm and Cwms Cottage or by paths from Comley via Hill House. RIGS Yes. Designated as a RIGS as the only exposure of the junction between Lower and Upper Comley strata and as tribute to the work of the geologist E.S. Cobbold Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1190 SO 495 851 The Sun Inn (car park) - Diddlebury Cutting (road/railway) Silurian: Upper Ludlow Shales Although mapped as Downton Castle Sandstone it is believed that the section exposed in the lower part of the bank on the north side of the carpark is in fact Upper Ludlow Shales. This shows blocky buff and yellow silstones with some false bedding current bedding and slumping visible. There is a sparse shelly fauna. Higher up the beds become more friable but cannot be directly observed due to a heavy over-growth of vegetation. The Ludlow Bone Bed could be expected at this horizon but was not identified. 50 m long and 2 m high. Brachiopods. Car park of the Sun Inn on B4368 about 5 miles from Craven Arms. Parking and refreshment! RIGS Yes. A large and very accessible site which has potential to show the Ludlow Bone Bed. False bedding and current bedding and slumping visible. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1192 SO 495 862 Delbury Quarry Quarry (working) Silurian: Aymestry Group to Upper Ludlow Shales; Silurian: Upper Leintwardine to Lower Whitcliffe Site of working quarry excavating local building stone. Quarry is a crude excavation by backactor into side of hill bordering an old quarry (old faces of which remain). The location is mapped as Upper Ludlow Shales but is probably transitional between Aymestry Group and Upper Ludlow. Rock is generally flaggy and variable between siltstone and grey shelly limestone which weathers to pale brown. This has an abundant fauna notably including many gastropods encrusted with bryozoa in symbiotic relationship. Low down in the sequence are honey-combed joint faces; well-weathered and contain a persistent bed with excellent small-scale slump or de-watering structures. This face resembles the honey-combed Upper Leintwardine below the base for the Whitcliffian stage in the standard section at Dinham in Ludlow. Above are thin micaceous sandstone layers which would correspond to Lower Whitcliffe and contain bedding planes densely packed with fossil assemblages. New excavation is 40 m long by 5 m high. Rich shelly fauna with brachiopods and gastropods. Dip 5° SE. Old delve to NE. On B4368 at Diddlebury take lane heading north signposted Pinstones; quarry is signed on RHS after 800 m. Private ground. Limited parking RIGS Yes. To ensure preservation of features at the transition between Aymestry Group and Upper Ludlow Shales (Upper Leintwardine to Lower Whitcliffe). Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1199 SO 503 858 Bache Mill Lane Cutting (road/railway) Silurian: Upper Ludlow Shales and Downton Castle Sandstone Exposure comprises a sequence of roadside cuttings and small roadside quarries on both sides of the narrow lane leading from the B4368 at Diddlebury to Bache Mill and Middlehope. The section begins with a rather fragile garden wall in Downton Castle Sandstone which is then succeeded by a constant horizon in Upper Ludlow Shales as the lane ascends the dip-slope. These are of calcareous siltstones. The Bone Bed does not appear to be present or visible. Up to 2 m high over length of 300 to 400 m. SE-facing dip slope; conformable. Lane heading N from Craven Arms/Bridgnorth road at Diddlebury. Parking on roadside verge just north of lane junction. Traffic hazard in narrow lane but visibility good RIGS Yes. Accessible exposure of Downton Castle Sandstone succeeded by Upper Ludlow Shales. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1205 SO 511 806 The Patch - Titterhill Quarry (disused) Devonian: Psammosteus Limestone with beds above and below Quarry lies at top of steep scarp; scarp slope appears to be predominantly marls and thin sandstones The quarry lies in trees immediately behind the ‘Unsuitable for Motors’ sign. On the right hand side the quarry face presents a single wall 1.5 metres high comprising a calcareous red-purple sandstone (or a sandy limestone). This bed dips gently to the left and to the left an embayment shows a further development. The calcareous sandstone has an erosional top and is overlain by 0.5 metres of cobble sized pieces of a rubbly limestone embedded in an irregular mixture of bedded sandstone and reddish marl. This in turn is succeeded by 0.2 metres of highly calcareous conrstone - here considered to be a bed of Psammosteus Limestone. Above this is 0.5 metres of massive olive sandstone which is current bedded at its base. The quarry is not specifically mentioned in ref.1 which however does describe the local occurences of Psammosteus Limestone. The roadside exposure at SO510807 at the foot of the scarp is now degraded. RHS wall is 5 m long and 1.5 m high. Embayment is 3 m wide and 3 m high. No fauna found. Dip 5° SE. Best approach is from Highcroft along lane signposted Titterhill and Thriftwicket lane; ascent or descent of scarp by motor vehicle needs extreme care and is not recommended. Limited parking and turning space at site RIGS Yes. The site represents the only exposure of Psammosteus Limestone in the area. Pending the discovery of better exposures it should be designated a RIGS since this limestone marks the important boundary between Silurian and Devonian strata. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1213 SO 573 880 (537 880 on GIS) Lower Earnstrey (stream-way) - Abdon Stream/brook Devonian: Ditton Series The stream channel (which may be dry in summer) provides a long section through the characteristic rocks of the Ditton Series. The stream bed lies mainly upon sandstone bedding planes; the banks are frequently cut into red and green marls; cornstones are common. The stream cuts down through the sequence so that about a 10 m thickness can be examined in detail. At least one fault shows contorted marl juxtaposed to massive sandstone. Diamond pattern jointing ripple marking and current bedding present within the sandstones. Downstream is the SSSI of Oak Dingle from which fish remains have been collected; a similar possibility may hold for this section. About 400 m long; banks up to 3 m high. From Tugford take the unsigned road at SO557872 heading NE towards Earnstrey Hall and farms. Section is on LHS (north) after 1 mile. Access requires crossing a barbed wire fence. Parking on verge only. RIGS Yes. Location designated as a RIGS as it is a rare open section in Dittonian strata showing the repeated deposition of units of thick red marl sandstone and cornstone with associated sedimentary features of ripple marking and current bedding. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1215 SO 586 851 Cockshutford Stream - Abdon Stream/brook Devonian: Clee Group of sandstones. TYPE LOCALITY: Upper Devonian Clee Group This stream-way ascends the western slopes of Brown Clee and provides a complete 1 km section through the yellow sandstones marls and occassional conglomerate of the Clee Group. No fossils recorded in ref(1). Gentle dips to SE; some large scale current bedding acc. to ref(1). Via minor roads on SE side of Corvedale to road-end at Cockshutford SO580850. Then follow tarmac road through 2 gates and then for ca. 500m; then head NW down through bracken to approach stream where follow path of sorts until (past an old chapel on the right (S)) a grass ramp leads down to stream-way itself at start of section. Ample vehicle parking at road-end; nearest cafe etc. at Ditton Prior ca. 7 km RIGS Yes. This is the type section for the Devonian Clee Group with a complete section through marls sandstones and conglomerates between Abdon Limestones and the Coal Measures of Brown Clee. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1216 SO 593 843 Clee Burf - Burwarton Quarry (disused) As mapped; Dolerite is always above Coal Measures. Sandstones of the Clee Group are succeeded by Coal Measures which in turn are intruded by dolerite such as occurs at Titterstone. The resultant outcrops are clearly displayed on the summit plateau of Clee Burf at 1800' AOD. The area includes many bell-pits and quarried dolerite in all stages of weathering as well as abundant Coal Measures spoil. General dips are to SE; dolerite upper surface shows slight chilling. Footpaths from all directions to summit of Clee Burf. Ditton Priors: parking; cafe; Inn. RIGS Yes. The hill top area of open pits and quarry designated as a RIGS since it comprises a unique combination of the highest coal workings in the UK with ‘bell pits’ sunk through a dolerite capping to coal seams below; plus features of an igneous intrusion displayed within the quarried area. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1217 SO 596 778 Radar Quarry (formerly East Quarry) - Titterstone Clee Quarry (disused) There is no BGS 1:50 000 Memoir covering this area. Dolerite (probably Upper Carboniferous) intruded into Carboniferous Coal Measures The very large quarry (now known as Radar Quarry; previously East Quarry) and landscaped area immediately below (south of) the radar domes on the summit of Titterstone Clee exposes many large buttresses of fresh and weathered dolerite (locally known as ‘Dhu Stone’). Rock falls have occurred here and the faces should not be approached closely. RIGS Yes. This quarried industrial landscaped area is one of the most easily accessible and impressive exposures of the Clee Hills dolerite intrusions extraction of which so dominates the local landscape community and economy. Mineralogy/Petrology
1220 SO 631 928 Hudwick Dingle Stream/brook Devonian: Ditton Series just above Psammosteus Limestone. The base of the Devonian in Shropshire is taken at the Psammosteus Limestone which caps the scarp along the SE margin of Corvedale. Many streams have cut down through this scarp and provide sections notable for fish remains; particularly in the beds or lenses of cornstone. Hudwick Dingle (south of Monkhopton) is a good example. An ex-SSSI it gives a long section through Ditton strata immediately above the Psammosteus Limestone. It is notable for the many species of fish (at least 12) identified there between 1869 and 1961. As the stream way tends to flow over sandstone and cornstone bedding planes sections in such beds are plentiful. Fish remains reported. Very gentle dip to S or SE. From Monkhopton village take lane heading south towards Neenton. Climb steeply and when clear of woodland turn left onto unsurfaced track. Follow this past a house until dingle can be seen on left. Go down to a wicker gate which gives access to the stream just above a 6 m waterfall. Follow up-stream as far as track crossing; about 1000 m. Permission needed - from where unknown. Limited parking in Monhopton; nearest pub at Morville c.4 km. RIGS Yes. This site shows the features typical of the ‘dingles’ which drain the slopes around Brown Clee Hill. In addition it is also notable for the many species of Devonian fish identified from fossil remains collected here. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1223 SO 651 807 Oreton Quarry Quarry (disused) Carboniferous Limestone of upper part Z zone Quarries close to the top of a ridge. The small Carboniferous Limestone outcrop northeast of Titterstone Clee was vigorously exploited in the late 19th Century. The beds bear comparison with Carboniferous Limestone in other parts of the country and include an ornamental stone - the ‘Clee Hill Marble’. The old workings are fast succumbing to ‘landscaping’ and vegetation so that only this one quarry still reveals any wealth of features. This was the source of the building stone for St Peters Roman Catholic church in Henley Road Ludlow (1935). The section includes 2 m massive limestone; 1.5 m calcareous shale and 9 m massive oolitic limestone with a limited fauna. Weathering is now beginning to reveal depositional features. Brachiopods corals and fish spines reported but rare. Gentle dip to SW. Some good faces of limestone exposed here. At the base is a slab-like layer above which is a 0.5 m thick horizon followed by one 2.5 m thick. Detail of limestone faces is obscured by weathering; some chemical solution. Although yellow on the surface the fresh limestone is grey and coarsely crystalline. Evidence of slickensiding suggests faulting. Height is approx. 6 m with more blocky limestone forming an overhang at the top. In the NW corner of the wooded area there are lower but more accessible faces. The limestone here is more thinly and unevenly stratified (being coarsely crystalline); crinoidal and packed with small comminuted fossil fragments. Dip is about 15° SE. Fallen blocks with spiriferids were seen nearby. A game-keeper spoke of a fossil band in the adjacent field noticed by the farmer when ploughing. Along the public footpath to Farlow occur loose blocks of ORS conglomerate of the Farlow Series. Network of minor roads; best method is to locate New Inn as only local public house and marked on OS map. From Upper House on road between Well Farm and Prescot take steep lane heading south. Seek access permission from Mr Derricott of Middle House Farm (next to Upper House Farm) or from occupants of ‘Liverpool Cottage’.  Ample road-side parking; New Inn is adjacent RIGS Yes. This site is the only accessible major exposure in Carboniferous Limestone in the southern part of Shropshire. This is a rare example of Tournaisian age Carboniferous Limestone in this area. The presence of the K and Z zone faunas at Oreton was first recognised by Vaughan and recorded in his classic paper on Carboniferous Limestone of the SW Province in 1905. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1233 SO 738 907 Quatford Church - Quatt Malvern Quarry (disused) Triassic: Lower Mottled Sandstone; or Permian: Bridgnorth Sandstone Isolated sandstone cliff in the Severn Valley; next to Quatford Church. A 25 m roadside section can be examined from the pavement. Here the major feature in red sandstone is a single trough bedded unit resting on and overlain by planar cross bedded units. The trough bedding shows tangential cross bedding inclined up to 10° and has something of the appearence of a wash-out channel. However ref.1 interprets this as a N-S section through west-migrating barchanoid bedforms with large crescentic slip faces moving under the influence of a long term easterly palaeowind. South of the section is an irregularly quarried area where outcrops display planar bedforms in three dimensions of maximum inclination 15° where the sandstone is graded in parts. Soft patches of sandstone are apparently uncemented. Road section is 25 m long and 4 m high; other sections up to 2 m high. No fauna found. Palaeoenvironment: Dry sand desert with easterly palaeowind. Between the church and the road is an L-shaped section in reddish sandstone which gives an overall view of a planar cross-bedded unit. The cross-bedding can be seen on different scales from 200 mm down to millimetre scale. Texture is that of a well-sorted medium sandstone with millet seed grains and little cement or matrix. This suggests an aeolian origin. There are many insect borings in the rock (probably solitary wasps) which indicates how soft it is. It is therefore surprising how this Permian Bridgnorth Sandstone stands up as vertical cliff faces (pore suction and grain interlocking - locked sands). Moving towards the road it was noted how the changed angle of dip around the L-shaped exposure gives a 3-dimensional perspective from which the true direction and angle of the local dip can be calculated. Along the pavement towards Bridgnorth is a single trough-bedded unit on both sides of the road. Orientation is east-west and the curved bedding is seen to wedge out as it approaches the horizontal base. This unit can be considered as a cross-section of a small barchan dune moving east-west. On A454 3 km south of Bridgnorth in Kidderminster direction. Large layby on east side of road; eating places 0.5 km further south. RIGS Yes. An excellent example of a single trough-bedded sandstone unit interpreted as a section of a barchanoid dune form perpendicular to its direction of travel. The upstanding block near the church entrance provides clear illustration in 3 dimensions of cross-bedded units. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1236 SO 794 941 Claverley Road Cutting (N) Cutting (road/railway) Lower Triassic: Wildmoor Sandstone Formation (`Upper Mottled Sandstone'). An extensive exposure of bright red Triassic sandstone that shows elaborate and extensive sedimentary structures.  Designated an SSSI; the section shows a variety of sedimentary structures including flat bedding; planar-; tubular- and trough- cross-bedding. 150 metres long by 10 metres deep following the path of the road. The extensive and great variety of sedimentary structures in this Lower Triassic sandstone indicate that deposition occurred in a sandy alluvial system with the river flowing towards the north-west. Some horizons within the sands may have been deposited as a result of wind action and it is therefore an important site for the study of Triassic environments. Take the A454 Wolverhampton Road out of Bridgnorth.  After about a couple of miles there is a turning on the right hand side of the road situated between a garage and the Wheel o Worfield Public House.  Turn right here signposted Claverley.  Follow this narrow country lane for about two miles until reaching a `T' junction.  On the right the village of Claverley and the church may be seen - turn left towards Shipley and after some 200 m the road passes through a deep but narrow cutting which is the exposure.  Access is good. However; this is a deep but narrow cutting on a single track country lane with no passing places and as such passing traffic may prove a danger to the visitor. RIGS Yes. The site designated a RIGS as an exemplary exposure in aeolian Triassic Sandstones with a wealth of sedimentary detail. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1237 SO 794 940 Claverley Road Cutting (S) Cutting (road/railway) Lower Triassic: Wildmoor Sandstone Formation (`Upper Mottled Sandstone'). An extensive exposure of bright red Triassic sandstone that shows elaborate and extensive sedimentary structures.  Designated an SSSI; the section shows a variety of sedimentary structures including flat bedding; planar-; tubular- and trough- cross-bedding. 150 metres long by 10 metres deep following the path of the road. The extensive and great variety of sedimentary structures in this Lower Triassic sandstone indicate that deposition occurred in a sandy alluvial system with the river flowing towards the north-west. Some horizons within the sands may have been deposited as a result of wind action and it is therefore an important site for the study of Triassic environments. Take the A454 Wolverhampton Road out of Bridgnorth.  After about a couple of miles there is a turning on the right hand side of the road situated between a garage and the Wheel o Worfield Public House.  Turn right here signposted Claverley.  Follow this narrow country lane for about two miles until reaching a `T' junction.  On the right the village of Claverley and the church may be seen - turn left towards Shipley and after some 200 m the road passes through a deep but narrow cutting which is the exposure.  Access is good. However; this is a deep but narrow cutting on a single track country lane with no passing places and as such passing traffic may prove a danger to the visitor. RIGS Yes. The site designated a RIGS as an exemplary exposure in aeolian Triassic Sandstones with a wealth of sedimentary detail. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1238 SO 386 802 Coston Manor - Aston-on-Clun (1) Quarry (disused) Ordovician: Hoar Edge Grit; Ordovician: Coston Beds On the eastern slope of Clunbury Hill but separated from it by component F1 of the Church Stretton fault is an area of basal Ordovician grits and sandstones originally mapped and described in detail by Dean. 5 specific localities were subsequently designated as forming a SSSI notification for the stratotype sections of the Costian Stage. Access to the area has been curtailed by the owners but special permission for a visit was secured by Dr. Helen Boynton.  Site '1' is the Upper Coston SSSI. The outcrop is a bank 3 m wide & 1 m high. A basal pinkish grit with small pebbles and lenses of decalcified shells visible; tend to be flaggy at top and a massive grit at base. Dip 35° at 290 (WNW). To the right the exposure is truncated by a fault trending 320° and showing slickensides. Numerous brachiopods collected here and from an adjacent temporary excavation [SO387803]. Discouraged by owners; a public bridleway passes from top to Clunbury Hill to Coston Manor but is signed as not giving a through way to Aston or Beambridge; this does however run alongside the bank exposure at this locality RIGS Yes. The quarries and exposures in the vicinity of Coston Manor are designated a RIGS as the surviving type sections for the Costian Stage of the Ordovician Period Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1239 SO 387 806 Coston Manor - Aston-on-Clun (2) Quarry (disused) Ordovician: Hoar Edge Grit; Ordovician: Coston Beds On the eastern slope of Clunbury Hill but separated from it by component F1 of the Church Stretton fault is an area of basal Ordovician grits and sandstones originally mapped and described in detail by Dean. 5 specific localities were subsequently designated as forming a SSSI notification for the stratotype sections of the Costian Stage. Access to the area has been curtailed by the owners but special permission for a visit was secured by Dr. Helen Boynton. Site '2' is the Hollies SSSI. This is a quarry 10 m wide but only the top 1 m is exposed. This is generally a coarse grit with abundant siliceous grains. Grit is ill-sorted with small angular to sub-rounded grains. To the left is a fault zone with breccia and coarse gouge trending SE. No fossils found. [SO387806]. Discouraged by owners; a public bridleway passes from top to Clunbury Hill to Coston Manor but is signed as not giving a through way to Aston or Beambridge RIGS Yes. The quarries and exposures in the vicinity of Coston Manor are designated a RIGS as the surviving type sections for the Costian stage of the Ordovician Period Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1240 SO 387 807 Coston Manor - Aston-on-Clun (3) Quarry (disused) Ordovician: Hoar Edge Grit; Ordovician: Coston Beds On the eastern slope of Clunbury Hill but separated from it by component F1 of the Church Stretton fault is an area of basal Ordovician grits and sandstones originally mapped and described in detail by Dean. 5 specific localities were subsequently designated as forming a SSSI notification for the stratotype sections of the Costian Stage. Access to the area has been curtailed by the owners but special permission for a visit was secured by Dr. Helen Boynton. Site '3' is the Hollies (N) SSSI. THis is a quarry about 10 m wide and 2 m high but totally filled with farm rubbish (netting corrugated sheet etc) and obscured by trees soil & moss [SO387807]. Discouraged by owners; a public bridleway passes from top to Clunbury Hill to Coston Manor but is signed as not giving a through way to Aston or Beambridge RIGS Yes. The quarries and exposures in the vicinity of Coston Manor are designated a RIGS as the surviving type sections for the Costian stage of the Ordovician Period Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1241 SO 390 806 Coston Manor - Aston-on-Clun (4) Quarry (disused) Ordovician: Hoar Edge Grit; Ordovician: Coston Beds On the eastern slope of Clunbury Hill but separated from it by component F1 of the Church Stretton fault is an area of basal Ordovician grits and sandstones originally mapped and described in detail by Dean. 5 specific localities were subsequently designated as forming a SSSI notification for the stratotype sections of the Costian Stage. Access to the area has been curtailed by the owners but special permission for a visit was secured by Dr. Helen Boynton. This is Site '4' Coston Cottage. This is a large excavation 25 m wide and up to 2 m high in massive and cross bedded fining upward units. Middle of face shows a zone of joint movement in direction 330° with near horizontal slickensides; also some bedding plane surface movements (SO390806] Discouraged by owners; a public bridleway passes from top to Clunbury Hill to Coston Manor but is signed as not giving a through way to Aston or Beambridge RIGS Yes. The quarries and exposures in the vicinity of Coston Manor are designated a RIGS as the surviving type sections for the Costian stage of the Ordovician Period Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1242 SO 391 804 Coston Manor - Aston-on-Clun (5) Quarry (disused) Ordovician: Hoar Edge Grit; Ordovician: Coston Beds On the eastern slope of Clunbury Hill but separated from it by component F1 of the Church Stretton fault is an area of basal Ordovician grits and sandstones originally mapped and described in detail by Dean. 5 specific localities were subsequently designated as forming a SSSI notification for the stratotype sections of the Costian Stage. Access to the area has been curtailed by the owners but special permission for a visit was secured by Dr. Helen Boynton. Site '5' is Quarry House. Behind the house is a new excavation but the best exposures are in a largish quarry to the right which is 10 m wide and up to 3 m high. Well bedded sandstone/grit units with good sedimentary features can be recognised as discrete units representing single ‘events’. These vary in thickness texture grain size and degree of cross bedding. The top of each unit may be an erosion or rippled surface. Dip 10° SE. Exposure is continued to the right by a further large quarry with a very broken face 20 m long and up to 4 m high and containing some very massive units; very coarse with ill-sorted pebbles up to 10 mm across [SO391804]. Discouraged by owners; a public bridleway passes from top to Clunbury Hill to Coston Manor but is signed as not giving a through way to Aston or Beambridge RIGS Yes. The quarries and exposures in the vicinity of Coston Manor are designated a RIGS as the surviving type sections for the Costian stage of the Ordovician Period Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1259 SJ 3921 2065 Ruyton Cliffe (reservoir) Quarry (disused) Triassic: mostly Keuper Series: Ruyton and Grinshill Sandstones; possibly Upper Mottled Sandstone below. West-facing scarp of Ruyton Cliffe. Massive Ruyton Sandstone with many holes produced by weathering. The face is red-brown in colour; about 4 m high and the rock finely arenaceous and well-sorted. The basal horizon is approx. 1.5 m thick with prominent iron-rich concretions. At the top of the exposure; thinner irregular layers can be seen.  The surfaces here are fairly fresh and there is noticeable orange-red iron staining on the RHS.  There was evidence of a fault; infilled with rubbly rock and spheroidal weathering present.  There is a good view westwards over the drift-covered plain towards the Ordovician Breidden Hills and the Berwyns. From a public footpath. RIGS Yes. Designation because there is structural; and weathering interest as well as good faces of representative Ruyton Sandstone combined with an instructive view. Mineralogy/Petrology
1261 SJ 3932 2051 Ruyton Cliffe (S) Quarry (disused) Triassic: Keuper Series: Ruyton Sandstone.  Sheet 138; Wem Scarp slope of Ruyton Cliffe facing south. This is the best of the old quarries on the Cliffe; it is circular with a rock entrance. One of the massive vertical faces is approx. 12 m high. There is a gradual colour change upwards from a bright red to beige at the top. About 4 m from the base is a prominent boundary below which the rock is massive and red-brown; above it there are clear; large-scale; unidirectional cross-bedded units.  The boundary roughly coincides with the colour change.  The uppermost 1.5 m are thinly bedded and appear to be lying horizontally above the cross-bedded strata.  There are many large joints and possible faults in the east corner. Continuing to the top of the hill via the footpath the topmost beds of the quarry can be examined although a vertical drop makes it necessary to be careful.  The sandstone here is light in colour and is traversed by numerous silica-filled or iron-rich joints which stand proud from the rock but have no real consistent direction. The viewpoint from the picnic area at the top is magnificent. Via an old track through the rocky entrance which branches off the footpath. RIGS Yes. Designation because the sequence through the Ruyton sandstones displays many features of structural and sedimentary interest. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1262 SJ 3940 2415 Ruyton (Blackberry Hill) Quarry (disused) Triassic: Keuper Series: Ruyton Sandstone. Sheet 138. Quarry is cut in the high cliff alongside the R. Perry. The rock is the typical Ruyton freestone; a fine-grained; dull red sandstone with yellow blotches and linear patches of buff. The height of the exposure is up to 9 m and lateral extent 30 m.  Because of the chisel marks it is difficult to see detail of sedimentary structures although there is evidence of cross-bedding. The top 2 m show strata which are very broken and irregular. At the furthest end of the quarry; in the SW corner; is a prominent joint filled with sand fragments and thin laminae running parallel to the joint plane.  It is possible this is a fault but there seems to be no conclusive evidence and Pocock refers to it as a joint.  The direction of the joint plane is NE/SW.  Adjacent to this feature is a face with smaller joints crossing each other at angles of approx. 120 and 60 degrees forming a diamond pattern. A few metres north from this face a small but clear fault can be examined. The fault plane runs nearly parallel to the face again in a direction of NE/SW. There are about 6 m of slickensided fault plane exposed (3 layers of slickensided surfaces being visible). The gap along the fault is about 6 m and is infilled with some mineralisation but also with brecciated fragments. The slickensides appear to show near-vertical movement. There is a convenient footpath but the quarry is a few metres off it through a wire fence by the river. RIGS Yes. Designation because the site is a clear example of Ruyton Sandstone with interesting fault and joint structures. Mineralogy/Petrology
1264 SJ 4755 2290 Webscott T-junction Quarry (disused) Triassic: Sherwood Sandstone Formation: Wildmoor Sandstone overlain by Grinshill Sandstone.  Wem Sheet 138. New nomenclature from Toghill: 'Geology in Shropshire.' SW facing scarp of sandstone ridge. A large quarry; one of several along this ridge; with exposures up to 12 m high.  Faces are vertical and massive with few visible bedding planes.  The sandstone is a dull but sometimes brighter red with a few light blotches which is crossed by numerous; sub-parallel joints. The joints are generally infilled with harder; siliceous material and trend approx. 25 degrees off the vertical.  The sandstone is fine and well-sorted. There are noticeable holes; the product of weathering; and indistinct cross-bedding. At the top are about 2 m of thin bedded; yellowish; cross-bedded sandstones; belonging to the Grinshill Group.  The NE face is crossed near the top by projecting; infilled joints. The joints are very interesting and on the left of the steps are several sub-parallel ones with perhaps slumping; and one very obvious infilled example which may be a fault. There are extensive exposures along the road here and the whole stretch from Myddle to Harmer Hill invites closer examination. Public access from the road. RIGS Yes. Designation because it is an extensive and good example of Wildmoor Sandstone (U. Mottled) and its boundary with basal Helsby Sandstone (Grinshill Sandstone) which displays interesting joint structures. Structure and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1265 SJ 4765 2339 Webscott Woodlands Quarry (disused) Triassic: Sherwood Sandstone Formation: Wildmoor Sandstone (Upper Mottled) overlain by Helsby Sandstone (Grinshill Sandstone). On SW-facing scarp slope of sandstone ridge. Rocks here are higher in the sequence than at SJ 476229 and a better examination of the Grinshill strata is possible.  The boundary is unclear on the south-east side of the footpath but on the north side 2 m of yellow; cross-bedded Grinshill sandstone can be seen lying on top of the redder Wildmoor sandstone on a vertical cut quarry face.  Also; a large vertical joint or fault with bright red sandstone infilling a gap of 0.5 m can be examined close by.  Further into the quarry; still on the north side; 5 m of thinly bedded sandstone; mostly covered by moss and algae; with harder infilling of small joints forming a criss-cross pattern; seems to be Wildmoor sandstone; but a few metres on; a natural exposure of about 4 m of Helsby basement beds; the light-coloured Grinshill sandstones is exposed.  It is possible to find a similar horizon opposite on the south side.  Glacial granite erratics lie by the footpath. A public footpath goes through the quarry and from it; looking SE the current workings for sand can be seen. RIGS Yes. Designation because the Wildmoor and Grinshill boundary is clear and accessible; joint patterns and structures are interesting and some present quarrying activity can be seen. ( It may be that this whole stretch of exposures from Myddle to Harmer Hill should be designated one RIGS. The two largest quarries have been described in this report and in SJ476229) Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1267 SJ 5148 2415 Clive (church) Track/roadside Triassic: Sherwood Sandstone Formation: Grinshill Sandstone. Sheet 138 Wem. NW end of Grinshill (SE end of Clive). Grinshill yellow sandstone is here very thinly bedded and is about 4 m high. The interest of this site lies in the spheres of barytes densely packed in the layers of sandstone.  They vary in size from less than 10 mm to 50 mm and are scattered randomly within the rock.  Although the condition of the exposures is not everywhere good there are enough clean surfaces to examine these small barytes nodules and they are an unusual feature.  They can be seen again in the rock of the steps that lead to the school; standing proud of the surface in places and also in a red sandstone exposure about 10 m from the SE corner of the churchyard.  Blocks of sandstone containing the barytes spheres are found in the wall opposite this corner. Public road and footpath. RIGS Yes. Designation because concentrations of barytes have here formed spheres in sandstone; an unusual phenomenon and therefore of much geological interest. Mineralogy/Petrology
1272 SJ 526 238 Grinshill Quarries Quarry (disused) Triassic: Sherwood Sandstone Group (Grinshill Sandstone Member) and Mercia Mudstone (Tarporley Siltstone Formation and Bollin Mudstone Formation).  New nomenclature from Thompson: 'Guide to History and Geology of Quarrying......in Corbet Wood; Grinshill' Near the top of SW facing  scarp slope of Grinshill. At locality 4 on the nature trail; a short path leads to an excellent old quarry face which reveals a complete succession of the local Triassic.  Buff/white Grinshill Sandstones; about 7 m thick; lie at the base of the exposure which towers to a height of approx. 18 m.  These display a sub-horizontal erosion plane near the base; and cross-bedded foresets of a former sand dune 4 m high.  There is a distinct break marking the lower beds of Tarporley Siltstones (flagstones here) which have a thickness of 8-9 m.  The original discoveries of bones and fossil footprints of Rhynchosaurus came from a comparable horizon to this rock unit within these Bridge Quarries. Both of the lower rock units are crossed by near vertical joints; and a fault on the west of the exposure. At the top of the face are about 2 m of Bollin Mudstones.  A rough steep path on the west leads to an overhang of Grinshill Flagstones which here display current and wave ripple marks. On the east side of the face; another short path leads past an excellent slickensided fault plane; aligned at 37 degrees and dipping 85° SE. The path ends at a rock barrier over which another large; very deep quarry can be seen. (see slides). Continuing along the main path for a few metres; the west end of Bridge Quarries is reached. The succession is repeated here and again the boundary between Grinshill Sandstones and Tarporley Flagstones is easily seen by the change to thinner strata and a recess in the face.  Another recess is seen about two thirds of the way up the face; this may represent another erosion surface (see slide). Easy; public access from the main footpath on the nature trail. RIGS Yes. Designation because the original fossil bones and footprints were discovered here; the face is excellent and accessible; and as well as the complete succession there are sedimentary structures; joints and faults to be seen. Suitable for groups of students and is a very good site for fieldwork. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1274 SJ 5262 2380 Grinshill Working Quarry Quarry (working) Triassic: Sherwood Sandstone Formation (Grinshill Sandstone Member) and Mercia Mudstone Formation (Tarporley Siltstone Formation and Bollin Mudstone Formation). New nomenclature from David Thompson: 'Guide to History and Geology of Quarrying' 1995. Quarry at top of south-facing scarp of sandstone hill; Grinshill which stands prominently above the plain. Most of the working quarry can be seen from a view-point a short distance along the path leading NW from Corbet Wood carpark (GR SJ 52602875). The rocks can be seen exposed in near-horizontal layers; the variation in colour from cream to red emphasising the changes in lithology (see slide). Strata actually dip 5° N towards the Cheshire Basin. The lower part of the quarry is composed of whitish massive Grinshill sandstone ca. 20 m thick. Skeletal fragments of an early lizard-like reptile; Rhynchosaurus have been found in this quarry and the possibility of finding more of these is the reason for its designation as part of an SSSI for vertebrate palaeontology. Above these sandstones lie the Grinshill Flagstones of the Tarporley Siltstone Formation.  The boundary between these and the massive sandstones below is clear to see. The whitish flagstones are 7-9 m thick and between the layers are greenish siltstones; known for their sedimentary structures.  Above the siltstones a few metres of red siltstones and mudstones of the Mercia Mudstone Group form the unproductive overburden to the quarry. The viewpoint is readily accessible from a public path leading from the Corbet Wood carpark.  Permission to enter the quarry may be obtained from the office on site. Small groups could be accommodated. RIGS Yes. Designation because the quarry since Darwin and Huxley's time has been known for the reptile footprints and there is a possibility of finding more. There is a good exposure of the Triassic succession described above and the dyke represents one of very few exposures of rocks in the county dating from the Tertiary Period. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1276 SJ 3850 1922 Nesscliffe Hill Quarry (disused) Triassic: Sherwood Sandstone Formation: Wilmslow Sandstone; and Helsby Sandstone (Ruyton Sandstone).  Sheet 138 (with old classification) Abrupt vertical cliff at southern end of Nesscliffe Hill. In this main quarry; the faces are impressive and vertical; the height being 25-30 m.  There is a transition from the Wilmslow Sandstone to the Ruyton Group from bottom to top of the cliff but no sign of a boundary.  The beds at the bottom are deep red and soft.  The colour becomes yellower and less deep red upwards in the sequence.  Many joints; some curved; cross the face diagonally.  There are cross-bedded units halfway up the quarry face but no sign of true bedding. The overall impression is of a high face of massive sandstone.  At the top; the beds are less massive and show curving structures which may represent channelling.  The Ruyton Sandstone ends abruptly here being cut by the powerful E-W fault; a branch of the main Axial Fault of Great Ness and Middle. A few metres NW is Kynaston's Cave; inhabited until at least the 18th century and excavated into another high cliff in the Ruyton Sandstone.  The rocks are weak; red with patches of yellow and noticeably cross-bedded.  Unfortunately; the chisel marks left after quarrying tend to obscure detail of sedimentary structures. There are other similar exposures especially at the south end of the hill. Via public footpaths RIGS Yes. Designation because this is an excellent; accessible example of the transition between Wilmslow and Ruyton Sandstones.  Would recommend whole of  Nesscliffe Hill as RIGS. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1278 SJ 4875 2140 Pim Hill Natural exposure Triassic: Sherwood Sandstone Formation (Bunter): Wildmoor Sandstone (Upper Mottled) and Helsby Sandstone (Keuper) Grinshill Sandstone.  Sheet 138 Wem; and Toghill 'Geology in Shropshire' Near the top of the scarp slope 300m N of Pim Hill. The old vein forms a gorge running approx. N-S along a fault. It is from 4-8 m wide and up to 6 m high.  The best exposure is at the southern end where it narrows and is steeper.  Grinshill Sandstones; beige in colour with specks of red; brown and grey and with manganese oxide; are exposed on the east side.  This rock is uniform in texture and is a medium grained sandstone.  On this side of the vein are good examples of slickensides with polished; mineralised surfaces.  The mineral is white but not CaCO3; possibly being BaSO4.  The fault planes trend SW-NE.  On the west side of the vein the rock is redder; finer and softer; being Wildmoor Sandstone.  There is evidence here of a continuation of the SW-NE trending fault but no mineralisation.  The gap; possibly the fault line; varies in thickness; being up to 0.5 m at the top and filled with loose reddish sand.  Longer investigation; at the head of the vein may reveal the boundary between the two main sandstone types. From the public footpath a well-used path through the woods (but not a right of way) goes past the site. RIGS Yes. Designation because the site exposes Grinshill and Wildmoor Sandstones on opposite walls of a faulted vein which also displays good evidence of subsidiary faulting. Mineralogy/Petrology
1279 SJ 6995 0770 Telford Town Park - Randlay Pool (SW) Natural exposure Upper Carboniferous: Upper Coal Measures: Coalport Formation. SE facing slope of sandstone ridge west of Randlay Pool. This exposure consists of massive; yellow; brown-weathering sandstone; beds being over a metre thick.  This is part of the 'Thick Rock' of the Coalport Formation.  The overall height of the exposure is up to 5 m and it extends laterally for about 20 m.  The texture is that of a coarse arenaceous rock with specks of black carbonaceous material.  Cross-bedding can be seen within the beds. About half way up the face the rock is more thinly stratified; typical thickness being 0.2 m; the appearance being more flaggy.  There is one noticeable infilled joint which forms a chimney-like structure (see slide 25).  There is an example of what appears to be channelling with fine multi-directional cross-bedding (slide 26) and softer; recessed area below a massive horizon made up of alternating; very thin; carbonaceous and sandy laminations (slide 27).  The dip of the beds is N/NE at an angle of 5° or 6°. In the middle of a public park with footpath access. RIGS Yes. Designation because this is an excellent example of the 'Thick Sandstone' of the Coalport Formation with a variety of sedimentary structures. Public access and substantial size of exposure make it a good site for group visits. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1280 SJ 7035 0765 and 7025 0760 Telford Town Park - Blue Pool (SE) Natural exposure Upper Carboniferous: Upper Coal Measures: Coalport Formation. NE facing slope of plateau-like terrain. Approaching from the southern end on the east side of Blue Pool the Coalport Formation forms a steep slope down to the pool (this is mostly covered with vegetation but at the foot are large fallen sandstone boulders).  Although moss covers the surfaces; nodules of iron pyrites up to 50 mm diam. can be seen weathering out of the sandstone. About 200 m further north-east are cliffs of mainly decaying grey/brown shale which clearly undergo slippage.  Sometimes the shale is very clayey and blue in colour - hence the name of the pool.  A discontinuous layer of hard sandstone blocks occurs 1.5 m from the top and 4 m below that is another such horizon. To the right of the most obvious sandstone layer is a distinct 'break' which would suggest a fault; especially as a small rivulet flows down there and exposes the shale.  Iron nodules can be picked up and the sandstone blocks at the foot of the slope contain well-formed iron pyrites crystals.  There is more massive sandstone at the NE end of the pool. The dip of strata on this side of Blue Pool is difficult to ascertain but Sheet 60 gives a 7° dip to the SE.  Dips vary round here probably due to faulting. A public footpath goes around Blue Pool so access is easy. RIGS Yes. Designation because the site demonstrates typical Coal Measure shales and sandstones in the middle of a park with unusually good public access.  Reflects economic history of area and is good educationally. Mineralogy/Petrology
1294 SO 386 932 Green Farm - Wentnor Quarry (working) Precambrian: Longmyndian: Wentnor Series: Bridges Group Side of valley (of river E Onny) This currently worked excavation is a conspicuous scar when viewed looking east from the Inn on the Green on the Bridges to Bishops Castle road. It proves to be a current working for farm hard-core some 0.5 km north of Wentnor. Size is some 40 m long and 4 m high aligned near north-south. As a result the excavation is inclined at some 20° to the strike of the typical Bridges Group siltstones and sandstones which dip 70° WNW. It is therefore a good section showing both bedding planes (usually darkly stained) and sedimentary detail of which the sandstones are massive and the siltstones finely laminated. The position corresponds to or is very close to locality 6 of figure 8 p.51 in the Memoir for the Church Stretton Sheet 166 (Greig et al. 1968). It is thus near the axis of the core zone representing the fold axis of the Longmyndian syncline (ibid p.50). The chief value of the exposure is thereby as a source of clean and fresh specimens showing sedimentary structures indicating younging direction. Several of the siltstone units have textures resembling those of plate 3 facing p.51 in the memoir. A second visit was made to collect samples (with permission of owner).  A number showing sedimentary variation in colour of bedding were collected but also specific cases of ripple marks rain pits and flute casts were found. The last three were consistent with a younging direction to the west; i.e. beds not inverted. The former were cut and polished (slabbed) and a younging direction also to the west was confirmed; from recognition of sedimentary units deposited by waning currents having a thin upper layer of darker mudstone often with a sharply delineated top surface. From the centre of Wentnor village proceed north taking the lane signposted ‘Bridges 3 miles’.  The quarry is 300 m further in a field on the left and approached through a metal gate and track. It lies on private ground. RIGS Yes. A good site for bedding; bedding planes; joints; dip measurment and of course way-up evidence. Nice rural views across fields and river to public house. Structure and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1296 SO 4875 9382 to SO 4905 9320 Woodgate Batch Bank Precambrian: Uriconian: Woodgate Batch Andesites and Dacites Over-deepened stream way; relatively straight although not fault-controlled; in part a gorge feature The section runs from a point 600 m SSE of Battle Stones to Greystones Cottage and comprises ground on both sides of the stream to a max. distance of 150 m. It thereby includes all the rocky outcrops crags and cliffs which line the side of the gorge sections. It is assumed in the absence of specific comment in the memoir (Greig et al. 1968) that the rocks are mainly sub-aerial lava flows although some occasional tuffs bands are mentioned. Some 10 individual outcrops were examined and these seem to cover the principal characteristics. These are: (1) SO4905 9315; a 4 m high X 2 m square outcrop of andesite with some phenocrysts and showing slight brecciation; most notable are strong smooth perpendicular joint planes suggestive of columnar jointing. (2) around SO489935 3 hillside crags up to 4 m high variously brecciated.. (3) SO4885 9358 a hill top at 303 m AOD. A very weathered outcrop showed distinct flow banding. (4) SO4880 9360; the top of a complex broken ridge which plunges steeply down to the stream below trending 260°. To the right the lowest crags are strongly jointed and form a step topography due to apparent bedding; to the left the lowest point is marked by a 8 m high face; very weathered with a distinct lamination and patches of brecciation. These latter two may represent tuffs. (5)  On the west side of the stream between SO486937 and SO487934 are several rocky bluffs with scree below two of them; a scree slope at SO4874 9345 yielded rocks of various types; viz. fine grained; porphorytic dark purple slightly flow banded; deep pink sharp edged and slightly vesicular and a pale coarse grained tuff. (6)  The quarry at SO4877 9340 receives a description in the memoir; p.23. It has recently been worked for hard-core. Semicircular in section it has two distinct levels. The upper level (half-circle diameter 15 m) is now 3/4 grass covered due to rapid decomposition of the andesitic rock. The ‘spheroids’ described in the memoir are scarcely recognisable in the visible rock at the top left. Only notable feature are two totally rotted areas of pale gray and yellow colour. The lower ground level; diameter 24 m; shows massive rock on the left hand side; a porphyritic andesite variously grey; green or pink. It breaks along the joint planes to produce irregular flat sided pieces which can have razor sharp edges! To the right the rock is softer and more resembles that in the upper level.  A distinct 3 m wide fault zone is visible with totally rotted fault breccia. (7)  An impressive vertical cliff lying below SO4900 9380 is dangerous if approached from the footpath above and has no public access from below. ACCESS: The most direct access; which leads to (5) & (6) above; is by a bridleway starting at SO486928 just west of Woodgate Cottage on the Church Stretton to Much Wenlock road 1 mile east of Hope Bowdler.  600 m further east a more convoluted footpath starts at Woodgate Farm; passes Gray Stones and gives access to points (1) to (4) above. The most direct access which leads to (5) & (6) above is by a bridleway starting at SO486928 just west of Woodgate Cottage on the Church Stretton to Much Wenlock road 1 mile east of Hope Bowdler. 600 m further east a more convoluted footpath starts at Woodgate Farm passes Gray Stones and gives access to points (1) to (4) above. RIGS Yes. These andesites and dacites cover a large area and this designation reflects their best exposure. A wide range of exposure type even if the rock type is ‘difficult’. A de facto type section with some geomorphology. A neglected area which gives an experience of exploration. Mineralogy/Petrology
1297 SO 3863 8658 Plowden Woods scarp - Lydbury North Track/roadside Silurian: Wenlock Shales; equivalent to the Silurian: Aston Mudstone Crest of apparent scarp This section in Wenlock Shales shows development at the top of the scarp in Plowden Woods. The hard grey mudstone/siltstone exposed in the quarry at the foot of the slope (SO383867) continues almost to the top of the scarp slope. This exposure shows the top few metres becoming much more calcareous and containing an allogenic shelly fauna. At the base of the section bedding is massive (partly due to bioturbation); in the upper parts this bedding becomes flaggy due to unloading.  However an increasing calcareous content is evident and some parts have decalcified to a deep brown or brilliant red-ochre coloured rottenstone. Associated with such decalcification is a prolific (occasionally dense) fauna which becomes much more distinguishable from the bioturbated background. This fauna is dominated by small brachiopods including some strongly ribbed varieties with Dicolesia biloba particularly prolific; occasional Beyrichian ostracodes (possibly Beyrichia salopiensis as figured in ref.1) and in an adjacent exposure trilobite fragments (probably of Dalmanites sp.).  This fauna is clearly allogenic and accumulates as small lenses or coquinas dispersed in the moderately bioturbated sediment. Further the lithology and fauna have strong resemblance to beds of the Elton Formation as exposed in the Goggin Road sections of Mortimer Forest. In view of the situation of this exposure on the junction between the shelf sediments of the Church Stretton sheet 166 and the off-shelf sediments of the Montgomery sheet 165 it is concluded that this exposure is better classified as one of the Aston Mudstone Formation of sheet 165 rather than Wenlock Shale of 166.  In view of subsequent developments in adjacent Edgton beds of the Oakley Mynd Formation and Bailey Hill Formation this is a crucial exposure in delimiting the boundary at a specific point in geological time between shelf and off-shelf sedimentation. Palaeoenvironment: Shallowing water; possibly tidal or storm affected but too silty for actual limestone to form. Section lies some 40 m from the footpath followed by the Shropshire Way and no explicit notice or barrier intervenes. Via the footpaths used by the Shropshire Way either from Plowden or Edgton one arrives at a path junction on the crest of an obvious scarp. From this junction follow the path to the east for 40 m where the section will be seen in a branch track which begins to descend the scarp. RIGS Yes. Designated a RIGS as a crucial exposure marking the boundary between shelf and off-shelf sediments at the time of the Silurian Wenlock/Ludlow series transition. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1301 SO 2782 9763 to SO 2794 9814 Hagley Upper Ridge - Chirbury Mine/adit Ordovician: Caradoc Series: Hagley Volcanic Formation A whaleback ridge with offsets due to faulting and a good viewpoint With alternating hard and soft beds and strata dipping 45° to the west; a ridge and hollow topography is common in the western margins of the Shelve Inlier. However; this particular ridge of resistant volcanic tuffs surrounded on both sides by readily weathering shales is a gem showing a text book example of a whale-back hill. It has the additional features of the type section for the Hagley Volcanics; some easily recognised faulting; and evidence of old mine workings. The roadside quarry SO27829763 is the type section for the Hagley Volcanic Member (Whittard & Dean; 1979). The open part nearest the road shows what appears to be a massive pale fine sandstone; slightly micaceous; however; slabbing confirms that it is devoid of quartz grains; quite soft and consistent with a very fine grained tuff. Notable is a distinct mottling usually taken as diagnostic of bioturbation. Coincidentally the polished surface cut a longitudinal section of the polyzoa Prasopora grayae (BPF; p.53).  To the left a public footpath follows the western margin of the ridge. There are numerous slab exposures on the right and confirmation of the volcanic nature of the rock with; for example; lithic tuffs of clasts of size up to 10 mm. After 300 m there is an embayment to the right where an adit (SO27859789) indicates old mine workings for barytes. A second path branches to the right and ascends to the crest of the ridge passing further workings and an old level showing fault gouge and vein quartz. This fault is represented on the ridge by a hollow with the highest point to the right at SO27959785.  Hereabouts numerous small quarries confirm the variability of the volcanics with examples varying from the mottled type of the roadside quarry to centimetre scale lithic tuffs. The ridge crest offers a superb viewing platform both of the local ridge and hollow topography and wider from Corndon Hill; the Kerry Ridgeway Silurian scarp and towards Newtown and Wales. Continuing north the ridge suffers a number of offsets which clearly relate to the mapped fault pattern and then a return can be made via the original footpath. Hagley is some 2 km south-east of Chirbury and is reached by the road to Priestweston some 1.5 km from the Whittery Bridge. The roadside quarry in trees is adjacent to a small pumping station surrounded by a wire netting fence. RIGS Yes. A text book geomorphological feature allied with comprehensible volcanics and evidence of old mine workings; part of Shelve Inlier ore field - barytes zone. A wide range of features including whaleback hill;  variable volcanics; tuffs; old mine workings; faults; local topography and viewpoint. Type section and question whether fine tuffs are bioturbated. Geomorphology/Landscape
1302 SO 471 932 to SO 490 945 Hope Bowdler Hill Crag Precambrian: Uriconian Volcanics Differential erosion of hard volcanic rocks compared with surrounding softer sediments; character of flanks of hill determined by nature of enclosing faults. Of the six ‘Church Stretton Volcanic Hills’ identified and described by the Geological Survey (Greig et al. 1968) that of Hope Bowdler is the only one completely defined by faults; these being the normal Cwms-Hoar Edge F3 fault of Lapworth & Cobbold together with thrust (reverse) faults named as Sharpstones and Willstone. These enclose an elongated area with a long axis of 2.5 km aligned SW to NE from the Gaer Stone (SO4723 9340) to Battle Stones (SO4855 9430) and up to 0.5 km wide. The character of the hill flanks clearly reflects the nature of the defining faults. The NW flank is generally straight and of a uniform slope 1 in 2 (ca. 25°) at the foot of which a hedge line marks the change to the lower angle and softer sediments of the Cwms inlier. In contrast the SE flank is more undulatory with its slopes marked by various steep outcrops overlooking the line of change to gentle slopes which marks the mapped position of the Willstone thrust. Between these faults is a single rounded grassy ridge with four distinct ‘tops’ at 390 425 426 and 403 metres together with intervening cols; all being linked by a footpath which is very popular with hill walkers. The stratigraphy is according to Greig (1968) a simple downward simple sequence of Andesites Conglomerate Rhyolites (with andesites and tuff bands) together with two areas of intrusive dolerite. Outcrops of the more basic rocks carry a heavy patina of staining and lichen with variable degrees of alteration. The rhyolites and conglomerate are somewhat fresher but overall it requires some familiarity before rock type can be confidently identified in the field. Fortunately all significant exposures are easily accessible from the ridge footpath and these more or less confirm the disposition according to the 1:25 000 Geological map; Sheet SO49; and Figure 4 (facing page 18) of the memoir (see however the attachment). As a ‘geological site’ the Hope Bowdler Hill has the following qualities germane to a designation: (1)  as a geomorphological entity it provides a convincing example of the role of fault type in the sculpture of a landscape feature; (2)  rock exposures are sufficiently distinctive to allow for field recognition of local faulting; (3)  there is an intriguing contact between the conglomerate and dolerite intrusion at SO4734 9345; (4)  there is a particularly fine section showing rhyolite xenoliths in a dolerite matrix (SO4740 9345 to SO4344 9350); (5)  rock outcrops along the SE flank raise the question as to how far if at all they have been affected by the adjacent thrust; (6) actual outcrops of the conglomerate bed provide evidence to support the interpretation by Pauley (1991) that this is a representative of the Longmyndian and overlies both rhyolite and andesites unconformably; (7)  it provides exemplary viewpoints both of the cuesta landscape to the SE and across the Cwms sedimentary inlier to Caer Caradoc; (8)  there is a sequence of exposures along the ridge from Gaer Stone to Battle Stones well able to support a geological trail or itinerary with potential to extend NE to Sharpstones and Hillend or SW to Ragleth Hill. (NOTE: An outline of such an itinerary is attached to this report as a vehicle for presenting fuller data of this survey) A footpath apparently established by common usage runs from Gaer Stone to Battle Stones. The former can be reached by public footpath from Sandford Seat (SO468933) 1.5 km from Church Stretton on the Much Wenlock road; the latter by public footpath from Willstone Upper Farm (SO492953). A public bridleway from Hope Bowdler village crosses the ridge at a col (SO482942) 400 m WSW of Battle Stones. RIGS Yes. Designated a RIGS as a compact and accessible Precambrian volcanic sequence showing features attributable to faulting intrusion and unconformity plus xenoliths; also offers comparison with other sequences such as that of Caer Caradoc. Feature mapping; rock types associated with Island Arcs and geomorphology. offers scope for discussion of a revised or new interpretation of the stratigraphy. Exemplary viewpoint pertaining to local geology. Mineralogy/Petrology
1303 SO 4418 9238 to SO 4425 9170 (?) Rudges - Little Stretton Quarry (disused) Precambrian: Longmyndian: Stretton Shales. Silurian: Llandovery: basal Pentamerus Beds Top edge of very steep 40 m high bank dropping down to stream Interesting exposures in Stretton Shales which reveal the overlying basal Silurian grits. The several exposures are described here as linked in a roughly 400 m long section. The section begins at the gate (marked G1 on the attached map) at SO4418 9238 from where the path runs south along the top edge of the Ashes Hollow stream bank. In 50 m are exposures of shales (locality 1) with an anomalous dip to the NE of 65°. At (2) (SO4417 9229) is a small quarry with a strong joint face trending 220° in Stretton Shales. The north side shows these shales with low dip curving over to near vertical; the south side is of dolerite which contacts the shales near the joint face. Locality 3 is an exposure of shales striking at 220° but affected by the distortion of kink banding. Locality 4 (SO4417 9211) is a second quarry 16 m wide and 3 m high in the eastern bank of the path. Here the shales dip more normally to the west but with very variable dips; 30° to 80°; and very much affected by flexure and incipient kink banding. On the west side of the path is dolerite exposed as a narrow rib 18 m long opposite the quarry. Beyond the quarry is a gate which gives access to a sunken lane. Locality 5 (SO4416 9208) is just beyond this gate and comprises a number of small exposures of highly brecciated shales which would seem to correspond to a fault breccia (although no such fault is shown on the BGS 1:25 000 map). From locality 5 rough tracks lead just south of east in 150 m to a gate G2 on a surfaced farm track; 50 m south along this track locality 6 (SO4425 9197) presents exposures of the Silurian. These are of several square metres of admixed pebbly conglomerate; purple grits and finer sandstones on both sides of the track with a dip to the south-east of 25°. These are clearly banked against underlying; but unexposed; Stretton Shales forming a beach deposit. No fossil casts were found apart from tenuous indications of columnals. The exposure ends as the track turns right leading out to the tarmac road in Little Stretton. via path described above RIGS Yes. Designated a RIGS as the most northerly example of the basal Silurian unconformity in conjunction with exposures of underlying shales showing distortions associated with faulting and dolerite intrusions. The re-opening in August 2001 of a permissive (?) path between Crossbanks Ludlow road Church Stretton and Little Stretton (SO445930 to SO441920) has given access to these exposures which are significant for understanding the phenomenon of kink banding. Structure and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1306 SO 3102 9816 to SO 3135 9917 Stapeley Hill (SE) - Worthen with Shelve Quarry (disused) Ordovician: Llanvirn Series: Hope Group; Stapeley Volcanic Formation (BGS; 1991); Shelve Formation; Stapeley Volcanic Member (Whittard & Dean 1979) Landscape of ridge centred on steeply dipping volcanic rocks and valley hollowed in softer shales both leading to plateau area of dolerite The single unit of three volcanic horizons of Whittard - the Stapeley Volcanic Member (bounded to the west by shales) the Stapeley Shale Member and (to the east) the overlying Hope Shales (Whittard & Dean; 1979; p.29) - was re-mapped by BGS as a complex of volcanic tuffs and lavas - the Stapeley Volcanic Formation - lying within the Hope Shales.  Figure 1 shows the resultant BGS stratigraphic column and figure 2 (annotated with locality numbers) shows the area covered by this report. Figure 3 is the OS map of the topography and outlines the surveyed area proposed as a RIGS. (1) This disused quarry centred on SO3102 9816 presents a 30 m wide and 6 m high face of massive bedded tuffs with strong jointing and areas of spherical weathering. Low down in the centre of the face a fresh cored area shows a grey coarse lithic tuff; elsewhere are finer tuffs and high up on the left is a small intrusion of chilled very fine grained dolerite(?). (2) The point SO3094 9816 marks the SW end of an emergent outcrop of volcanic tuffs which forms a continuous rib running along the NE strike for 200 m and dipping NW 55° to 65°. This is here considered to be a significant geomorphological feature since it demonstrates one of the forms which can result from the erosion of dipping rocks and bears immediate comparison with Hagley Upper Ridge and Cwm Dingle. (3) A tor-like feature at SO3100 9825 shows what would appear to be volcanic ‘bombs’ but in fact are larger partially rounded clasts of rhyolitic(?) rock. (4) The NE end of the continuous rib is at SO3104 9833 but scattered outcrops continue ahead for some distance. (5) Off to the left (NW) the ground falls away into a parallel running smooth sided valley. Across on the opposite side can be seen a shale exposure (see report for Upper Stapeley Farm (E)) but hidden from view on this nearer side is a badger set where excavation has yielded abundant dark grey fissile shale fragments representing interbedding of the Hope Shales. (6) Continuing along the main ridge the ground becomes flatter and outcrops less frequent. At a crossbank a cairn can be seen ahead apparently offset from the trend of the ridge. This cairn at SO3124 9896 marks the near edge of a large area of dolerite which has totally blanketed the previous landscape of ridge and hollow forming instead a roughly level plateau. (7) This second cairn at SO3135 9917 marks the NE limit of this survey. (8)  Return to the quarry of location 1 can be usefully made along the upper parts of the SW slopes where further outcrops of the Stapeley Volcanics occur.  It is evidence of the stratigraphic complexity that what was considered by Whittard to be a single unit of three volcanic horizons - the Stapeley Volcanic Member (bounded to the west by shales - the Stapeley Shale Member) and to the east by the overlying Hope Shales  (Whittard & Dean; 1979; p.29) was re-mapped by BGS as a complex of volcanic tuffs and lavas - the Stapeley Volcanic Formation - lying within the Hope Shales. The area of Stapeley Hill covered by this report is unenclosed common land crossed by numerous paths and a bridleway linking it to the Mitchell’s Fold Stone Circle. Convenient parking places are therefore either the visitor’s car-park for the Stone Circle or by the chapel at the start of the hamlet of White Grit on the Priestweston road. From the latter is 400 m by paths which will lead to the quarry of locality 1. RIGS Yes. A very comprehensive introduction to volcanics and intrusives and the development of landscape features from underlying rocks. Necessarily the type section for the Stapeley Volcanic Member. A very evident connection between the geology and ancient peoples selection of sites for stone monuments. A coherent combination of rock type and landscape. 360 degree viewpoint embracing Long Mountain; Corndon Hill; Stiperstones and Pontesford Hill - all geologically based! Mineralogy/Petrology
1309 SO 446 916 to SO 458 927 Ragleth Hill - Church Stretton Natural exposure Precambrian: Uriconian: Ragleth Tuffs Relatively erosion-resistant volcanigenic basement rocks revealed by faulting. If considered as the outcrop area of the Ragleth Tuffs then Ragleth Hill forms an elongate ridge running SW to NE for some 1.65 km; reaching an altitude of 398 m AOD (1305 feet). The maximum width of the outcrop of tuffs is approx. 500 m and covers an area of approx. 0.75 sq. km.  Geological boundaries are the Ordovician Harnage Shales to the SE mapped as faulted by BGS and the basal Longmyndian Helmeth Grits to the NW mapped as an unconformity by BGS (Greig et al.; 1968) although considered to be ‘stratigraphically insignificant’ by Cobbold & Whittard (1935) and even conformable by Pauley (1991).  It can be noted that both boundaries follow a change of slope; for the Ordovician this is a sharp lessening of angle from hillside to cultivated field but for the Helmeth Grit there is a pronounced increase in slope angle on entering Ragleth Wood particularly at the southern end. The hill could be taken as providing the type section for the Ragleth Tuffs but there is a general sparsity of exposure and better more definite sections of the tuffs are to be found along the SW ridge of Caer Caradoc. In fact the major outcrops amount to only four in number with positions as marked on the attached map and there labeled A to D. (A)  On the northern slopes of the hill this is discontinuous sequence of exposures all lying along a south trending strike for 120 m from SO4584 9259  to SO4582 9248. Outcrop is of a roughly bedded tuff similar to that of 3-Fingers Rock on Caradoc. Bedding is particularly obvious at the lattermost NGR where the outcrop is of a 4 to 5 m high face dipping ESE at 75°. Polished surface (slabbing) shows a fine pale and dark banding and confirms that the visible texture is one of true bedding. (B)  There is a complementary outcrop on the southern slopes which forms a prominent step-like feature clearly visible from the A49. Up to 3 m high this step extends for 100 m from SO4504 9163 to SO4494 9159 with a discernible N-S strike cutting across the feature with dips variable either side of the vertical. There is some evidence that this feature is truncated by faulting at its NE end. (C)  The south west end of the hill offers an area of scattered outcrops which appear to have been subject to quarrying or excavation in the distant past. Among these at SO4490 9170 is an in situ exposure of conspicuous near brick red rhyolitic tuff (?) at the end of a feature which appears to dip 60° NW. This has significance as it is conformable with some dips in the Helmeth Grit and with the regional dip of the Longmyndian. (D)  This small crag  of coarse massively bedded tuff seems connected to A with an apparent dip of 80° SE. The rock itself deserves comment: polished surfaces show a granitic composition with equi-sized grains of angular pink felspar; angular and rounded grains of transparent quartz and irregular grains of biotite mica. That it is not a granite is show by: a)  freely fractured surfaces show the quartz as perfectly formed clear pinacoid crystals; b) there are occasional fragments of alien rock; typically a purple shale. Thus the rock is to be classed as a ‘crystal-lithic tuff’ which has undergone free growth and/or recrystallisation of the quartz (silification). (E)  Around the summit pole at SO4509 9176 are several rhyolitic blocks some or all of which are not in situ.  A few metres to the NW a genuine in situ exposure appears to show a dip to the NW.  In spite of sparsity of outcrops; Ragleth Hill offers some scope for an itinerary; especially if combined with exposures of Helmeth Grit in Ragleth Wood (q.v.).  A possible route is shown on the attached sketch map and starts from the top of Poplar Drive (off Chelmick Avenue) at SO4585 9300. It deliberately avoids the barren footpath along the ridge taking instead a lower path on the SE flank which provides an improved view both of the change on slope at the Ordovician boundary (not visible from the ridge path) and the development of scarp features in the succeeding Ordovician and Silurian sediments. There are a number of further outcrops around this traverse which supplement those of A; B & C. Open access to the whole area via public footpaths RIGS Yes. A major locality in determining the exact nature of the Precambrian transition from a predominantly volcanic to a sedimentary environment (especially when taken in conjunction with the Helmeth Grit of Ragleth Wood). Good exercise in recognition of bedding and appreciation of mapping problems and techniques. Significant in the context of Uriconian to Longmyndian (volcanic to sedimentary) transitions. Widespread views from itinerary traverse and even more so from summit footpath. Mineralogy/Petrology
1310 SO 446 916 to SO 458 927 Ragleth Wood - Church Stretton Natural exposure Precambrian: Longmyndian: Stretton Shale Series: Helmeth Grit Member Scree and rock outcrops with at least one small patch of fluvio-glacial debris The linear outcrop of Helmeth Grit lies between the slopes of the NE flank of Ragleth Hill where it has a length of 1.75 km between SO446916 and SO458927 and maximum (horizontal) width of 100 metres.  Its geological boundaries are apparently conformable to the overlying Stretton Shales but debatable to the underlying Uriconian Volcanic Ragleth Tuffs. The outcrop is wholly covered by woodland - Ragleth Wood - whose edges roughly correspond to the geological boundaries. However these are more accurately placed by changes of slope there being a general steepening of gradient in passing from the Ragleth Tuffs and a lessening in passage to the Stretton Shale lithology. In the southern part there is extensive scree clearly felt as lying just beneath the very thin soil surface. Whilst the Helmeth Grit was recognised as having a distinctive lithology by the Geological Survey (Greig et al.; 1968) surprisingly no specific description of what this lithology is was given; the memoir choosing to rely entirely on the descriptions given earlier by Cobbold & Whittard (1935). From a now obscured section in Hazler Road; Church Stretton; a natural outcrop in Ragleth Wood and an excavation in ‘the triangular field abutting against the SW end of Ragleth Wood’ these authors described the Helmeth Grits as an interbedded sequence of four ‘Grit bands with somewhat variable shales to a total thickness of 98 feet (30 m). From petrographic work they concluded that ‘the rocks are .. lithic tuffs formed .. from already consolidated Uriconian types .. and may be taken to represent the decadent phases of the vulcanicity of the Uriconian’. The absence from the memoir (Greig et al.; 1968) and from the paper of Pauley (1991) of any mention of specific outcrops of the Helmeth Grit suggested that no worthwhile outcrops remain. Nevertheless; difficult but persistent exploration of Ragleth Wood has revealed at least four outcrops of a nature to allow for construction of a large part of the sequence. Rock samples recovered from these outcrops tend to confirm the findings of Cobbold & Whittard but show; if anything; an even wider variety of volcanigenic type. The position of four outcrops are indicated by letters A to D on the attached map and each is given an identifying name in the follow descriptions: (A)  Original Quarry at SO4494 9224; closest to the overlying Stretton Shales this shows a massively bedded arkose like sandstone which has undergone deep weathering of its mafic (?) minerals so that it now presents a quite porous texture. Unweathered examples of apparently the same rock type have been recovered from other exposures (including Ragleth Hill itself) and show an essentially granitic composition of quartz; feldspar and mafics. Weathered pieces are common throughout the whole outcrop (even on Helmeth Hill) and show a pale brown/yellow gritty texture that seems to represent the so-called ‘distinctive lithology’ of Greig et al (1968). Note that it was this quarry which was the subject of a RIGS designation in 1997. (B)  Charcoal Ridge SO4489 9221; so-named as lying below a charcoal burner's platform at SO4496 9218  (confirmed by presence of charcoal fragments in the sub-soil). This is a steep narrow (5 m) outcrop some 25 m long; forming a ridge of rock which is strongly jointed. There are also further exposures on the left-hand (NE) flank. Overall the impression is of a lithology similar to the Original Quarry but sampling (followed by slabbing) shows a wide range of rock type including lithic tuffs with an arkose matrix; pale grey brecciated rhyolite; dark gray basalt like (lavas?); dark grey brecciated shales; mixed crystal (felspar and mafic) and dark grey lithic tuffs etc. Whilst a sedimentary log would appear feasible it seems likely that the outcrop is much broken by faulting and hence presents a juxtaposition of various rock types. (C)  Yew Tree Crag SO4489 9206 (top) to SO4486 9206 (base).  Whilst the ground hereabouts is cut by deep gullies with seperating steep ridges this 30 m square outcrop; overshadowed as it is by a large conspicuous yew tree; is of great importance since it is the only location where dip direction and magnitude can be unequivocally measured. This is because the outcrop is of a large bedding plane of ‘grit’ overlain in its lower part by a thick bed of apparently black ‘shale’. On slabbing the latter is seen to be finely banded in shades of gray between pale and near black. There are also interbedded thin 5 mm thick layers of arkose sandstone which probably represent the ‘sandy shales’ of Cobbold & Whittard (1935). The latter plus the grit bedding planes confirm a dip to the NW (65° to 310) conformable with the regional dip of the Longmyndian from Stretton Shales upward. (D)  South-west Gully SO44829184. This is the locality of Cobbold's excavation in the ‘triangular field’. The gulley marks a SW boundary for the wood and was the line of the old walker's route up Ragleth Hill starting from the A49 opposite the lane from Little Stretton. It is steep boulder filled and awkward. At the top the angle eases and there are outcrops on the right but a larger main outcrop just in the woodland on the right. There is no obvious sign of what or where Cobbold's excavation may have been. Both outcrops provide rock types similar to what has already been mentioned but without giving clear indications of dip and strike directions. Here would appear to be the nearest exposures to the underlying Ragleth Tuffs - indeed Cobbold stated; by a curious piece of circular reasoning; that his excavation revealed the actual junction. This cannot be claimed now. Between SW Gulley and Yew Tree Crag the ground is much covered by scree deriving from a number of small outcrops that have not (yet) been investigated.  Ragleth Wood provides a relevant continuation of an itinerary which begins by examining Ragleth Hill (q.v.). The route shown on sketch map would reverse the sequence from SW Gully to the original quarry and then follow a path around the lower edge of the wood to complete a circuit back to a starting point in Poplar Drive. This lower path crosses at least one on the traverse faults which overall affect the outcrop. Ragleth Wood seems open both from the slopes of Ragleth Hill particularly by one or two very visible footpaths or from a path which follows the lowermost boundary of the wood from vicinity of Snatchfields at least to locality A. RIGS Yes. Provides good in situ exposures of the Helmeth Grit which support claims of vulcanicity continuing (although perhaps waning) into the Longmyndian sedimentary regime. Good exercise in identification of volcanigenic rock examples. Critical exposures in any consideration of the Uriconian to Longmyndian transition. Mineralogy/Petrology
1311 SO 2950 9785 to SO 2966 9805 Cwm Dingle (ridge) - Priestweston Natural exposure Ordovician: Llanvirn Series: Weston Flags Formation: Upper Sandstone Member. Upper Grit horizon within Weston Member of Middleton Formation (Whittard & Dean; 1979) Although resembling an escarpment; the high angle of dip (c. 60°) suggests the notation ‘reversed scarp’ (see attached diagram & note) The ridge is the outcrop of the upper ‘Sandstone’ within the Weston Beds and forms the NW side of the hollow of Cwm Dingle (the lower sandstone; 100 m to the SE; forms the opposite side). The visible rock outcrop extends for 300 m forming an ascending ‘edge’ running from SW to NE along the regional strike direction. Dip is to the NW at about 60°. A path climbs the edge from the SW and shows strong joint planes; orthogonal to the bedding; overlooking the dingle to the right forming a pronounced step or ‘scarp’. To the left the surface is relatively horizontal so that bedding planes are not exposed except in the numerous small quarried areas which have been worked on this side. It is this seeming reversal of the role of bedding and joints which prompts the appellation ‘reversed scarp’ for this topographic feature. BGS (1991) describes the Weston Flags Formation as bioturbated sandstones and siltstones. Whittard considers the Weston Member as being ill-sorted shallow water deposits; possibly estuarine; varying from rough bedded argillaceous strata to (smoothly bedded) massive units (Whittard & Dean;1979; pp38-39). Along the ridge where the bedding can be seen it shows an interbedding of thin rough flags and thicker smoother massive beds. There is an abundance of talus derived from shallow quarry workings to the left of the edge whereby both types may be examined. The general grade is coarse siltstone to fine sandstone. Some beds occur typically as 10 mm thick flags showing fine laminations and with surfaces much roughened by two agencies. One is the effect of bioturbation which in some pieces can be seen to have left vertical burrows filled with light sediment which erupt onto and roughen the surface and also locally destroy the lamination. Occasional bedding planes can be found criss-crossed by the casts of ‘worm tubes’; termed fucoid markings by Whittard. The second effect is that of sole markings which also seem more organic than physical in origin. The massive beds occur as smooth surfaced flags typically 30 to 50 mm thick. These can vary from relatively soft olive and brown siltstone showing planar laminations to hard; near black and rough fracturing units. Some original calcareous content is suspected with much decalcification present. A useful adjunct of this site is that; by choice of access route; it may be better placed in the context of adjacent sediments of the Weston Formation. Specific localities which can examined by a recommended route are listed in an attachment. A network of footpaths surround Cwm Dingle. Most direct access is by path heading NE from Priestweston. A more convoluted route starts from a layby at SO298977 near the summit of the White Grit road. This uses an old road to Priestweston (now a green lane) and encompasses some half dozen or so related localities. Details are in the attachment. RIGS Yes. A wealth of sedimentary and bioturbation features combined with a notable topographic feature demonstrably related to the underlying strata. An excellent location for examination of bioturbation and waning current sedimentary features combined with an impressive and intriguing geomorphological feature. Has relevance to the deposition conditions of the Weston Flags Formation. Some local use of the flags for building stones. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1313 SJ 754 034 Grindle Forge - Ryton Cliff Permo-Triassic: Sherwood Sandstone Formation: Kidderminster Conglomerate and Bridgnorth Sandstone (Toghill).  Sheet 153 has old nomenclature. Part of steep escarpment along Wesley Brook. An excellent exposure of the transition between Bridgnorth Sandstone and Kidderminster Conglomerate. 80 m of rock are exposed parallel to the Wesley Brook reaching a height of 8 m. There seems to be an overall easterly dip but the whole face shows impressive cross-stratification; both small and large scale with overlapping units. A recess causes overhang at the base which on closer inspection coincides with 200 mm of red marl with sandstone below.  Mottling is random but mostly seen half-way up the face.  About 8 m to the east swirling structures can be seen and two thin 30 mm horizons of finely laminated shaly marl; horizontally bedded some of which is grey-green.  A great deal of small sedimentary detail can be seen including alternating sandstone/marl layers 2 mm thick.  Approx. 30 m from the bridge another major face shows a small fault which faults out the marl and where displacement is discernible. Another interesting sedimentary feature is the slumping of sandstone blocks into the underlying marl resulting in an irregular sandstone base. It is difficult to identify a boundary between Bridgnorth Sandstone and the overlying Pebble Beds but scattered small pebbles make an appearance about two-thirds up the face. Open access by the road and beside the brook. RIGS Yes. Designation because the sedimentary detail displayed here at the junction between Bridgnorth Sandstone and Kidderminster Conglomerate offers much opportunity  for interpretation and reconstruction of palaeo-environments during the Permo-Trias.  Also it is an excellent site for groups for teaching. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1314 SJ 765 015 Old Rectory - Beckbury Track/roadside Triassic: Sherwood Sandstone Formation: Helsby Sandstone (new nomenclature; Toghill). Old nomenclature on Sheet 153. The road cutting is part of the prominent escarpment formed by this rock. The exposure on the east side of the road into Beckbury is about 50 m long and shows up to 3 m of calcareous marl conglomerate with pebbly sandstones similar to those at Badger Dingle. At the base of the sequence are fairly massive sandstones with distinct cross-bedding. These are finely laminated and display multi-directional cross-stratification.  Pebbles present in the sandstone are themselves aligned to the cross-stratification; they are varied in size averaging 50 mm but the occasional pebble is 100 mm. They tend to form thin layers and are generally dipping at about 20°. Pebble density is greater towards the base of the sequence and the shape is mostly angular although there is some rounding.  Thin lenses of red/brown marl are distributed throughout the rock and generally form cavities. However approx. 400 mm from the base and 10 m from the old rectory gate is a prominent recess of marl which can be easily examined. The whole exposure is full of holes where pebbles have been weathered out. High up at the old rectory end the sandstone appears to show evidence of possible channelling. The rock has clearly been used for building in the village and the stone walls contain interesting specimens. A collection of varied loose rocks has been assembled beside the restored trough outside the village hall and includes fine examples of Pentamerus Limestone the source of which is a puzzle! Conveniently beside a public road. RIGS Yes. Designation because it is a very good exposure of Helsby Sandstone demonstrating a fluvial environment of deposition with varying energy levels. It is one of few such exposures in the area. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1315 SJ 7515 0575 Brimstree Hill - Shifnal Cutting (road/railway) Permo-Trias: Bridgnorth Sandstone and Kidderminster Conglomerate (Toghill); from Sheet 153 which uses old nomenclature. The rocks here forms a hill. At Brimstree Hill weak cross-bedded Bridgnorth Sandstone is capped by much stronger conglomerate and is exposed effectively at the roadside. Up to 2 m of large-scale overlapping units are seen wedging out in different directions. The rock is a uniform red millet seed-type sandstone typical of wind-blown dune formation found in the Bridgnorth area. The units are finely laminated and mottled in places. There is a very definite boundary with the Kidderminster Conglomerate which appears to dip towards the south-west at about 10°. Pebbles are small aligned in thin layers reflecting the cross-bedding. Pebble beds reach ground level at the southern end of the cutting which extends for about 40 m. This cap of conglomerate is very hard and the pebbles are held in a strong purple/brown sandy matrix. This can be compared with the outstanding site at the Hermitage in Bridgnorth. Open access by the roadside. RIGS Yes. Designation because the exposure clearly shows the boundary between the two contrasting rock formations (Bridgnorth Sandstone and Kidderminster Conglomerate) which in turn reflect contrasting former environments of deposition. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1318 SJ 549 268 Lee Brockhurst (rock cutting) Track/roadside Triassic: Sherwood Sandstone Formation: Wildmoor Sandstone (Toghill). Sheet 138 has old nomenclature. The f3 Formation; Wildmoor Sandstone; here forms a prominent hill; into the edge of which an old lane was cut. Each side of the path are 4-5 m high vertical exposures of cross-bedded; red soft sandstone. The exposure continues for at least 100 m and is easy to examine and in good condition. Beige patches form the mottled effect which gave this the former name of Upper Mottled Sandstone. The cross stratification is impressive and multi-directional; with varied angles of dip. The texture of the orange-red sandstone is fine and well-sorted with no pebbles. However; there are horizons where the quartz grains are coarser and apparently of the millet seed type. The exposure shows much vertical jointing and several faults; there is one excellent example of a fault plane with a trend of 120° which crosses the lane; able to be linked up as it continues on the other side. Slickensiding is visible and there is slight mineralisation. The strata consist of blocks; often having slipped and giving a chaotic appearance; but there is a tendency for the layers to become finer towards the top of the exposure. Easy access via a public right of way. RIGS Yes. Designation along with the sites referred to in RIGS report SJ 547268. Together these sites provide opportunity to examine Triassic exposures which display a range of textural; and structural features. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1319 SJ 548 267 Lee Brockhurst (river bridge) Cliff Triassic: Sherwood Sandstone Formation: Chester Pebble Beds (Toghill). Sheet 138 with old nomenclature. Steep cliff by the R. Roden. An exposure; up to 4 m high; extends for 25 m from the bridge. The whole appearance is one of disturbed bedding produced by shifting currents. The sandstone is coarser than Wildmoor Sandstone and a browner red in colour. This is near the top of the Chester Pebble Beds. Pebbles are scattered throughout the rock; being mainly angular and small (20 mm) but there are pockets of more densely packed pebbles within the sandstone. The strata are distinctly cross-bedded; some small scale; others larger and in places very disturbed. There is much to suggest a relatively high energy environment. Circular patches of softer sandstone occur with iron compounds forming rims which stand proud from the softer rock. Elsewhere; swirling structures are seen in the sandstone. Evidence of small scale faulting occurs and there is a much more distinctive fault with trend of 200°; displaying slickensided surfaces and mineralisation. Along the fault plane is a gap of 300 mm occupied by a fallen block with a second fault a metre or so to the west; its trend being 160°. This is a very interesting site when seen in the context of the other sites at Lee Brockhurst. The face at this river cliff appears to be the actual place where the major east/west fault crosses the road. Via a non-public but well-used path to the river under the road bridge. RIGS Yes. Designation because it is an easily accessible large informative exposure of Upper Chester Pebble Beds which provides evidence for palaeo-environmental reconstruction situated where a faulted junction of  f2 f3 and f6a occur. The river cliff forms a major E-W fault. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1321 SJ 560 286 Wixhill Lane - Weston under Redcastle Track/roadside Triassic: Sherwood Sandstone Formation: Wildmoor Sandstone (f3).  Sheet 138 uses old nomenclature. North-west edge of the sandstone hilly area around Weston. Exposures here occur along a large part of the lane leading from the A49 to Wixhill village. Exposures consist of overall near horizontal bright red sandstone within which is low angle fine cross stratification. The partings are wavy between the thin; hard beds and there is an appearance of rippling and a scalloped effect. The height of the exposure is about 3 m. One horizon; approx. 2 m up; and 30 mm thick; is noticeably recessed. The rock is heavily jointed; some curved and parallel; especially towards the village and under a garden wall on the south side; some of these show slight displacement suggesting they may be small faults. On the south side there is more massive bedding (up to 1.5 m thick) often with a definite boundary where the latter are overlain by softer cross-bedded strata. Easy roadside access. RIGS Yes. Designation suggested because it is an extensive exposure of the Wildmoor Sandstone with interesting sedimentary and tectonic structures close to a significant fault zone. Structure and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1323 SJ 594 289 Marchamley - Hodnet Quarry (disused) Triassic: Sherwood Sandstone Formation: Helsby Sandstone; and Mercia Mudstone Formation: Tarporley Siltstones. Sheet 138. Southern edge of sandstone escarpment which borders Hawkstone Park. This report covers two adjacent sites. The Quarry:  This disused quarry is easily seen by the roadside and the massive white sandstone is striking. The rock is soft yet stands up as a near vertical face. There is evidence of large-scale cross-bedding. The texture is mainly uniform; the clean quartz grains giving the appearance of beach sand. However; a few quartz pebbles (20 mm across)  were present; as were scattered harder nodules; possibly of barytes-rich sand. In the westerly corner of the quarry; there is a fault line and the light colour of the rock changes to red. Another interesting feature at this end is what appears to be barytes cement which produces a ridged effect; outlining the cross-beds. There are also diagonal cross joints at angles of 120° and 060°. At the easterly end; the boundary between f5 (Helsby Sandstone) and f6 (Tarporley Siltstones) can clearly be seen. The red and grey coloration contrasts with the white sandstone beneath. The Tarporley Siltstones are dipping gently NNE and occupy the top 2 m or so. The lowest 750 mm comprise an esk bed; i.e. grey shaly sand with specks of manganese dioxide; and this is succeeded by red flaggy sandstones. A noticeable infilled joint or even a fault; cuts through the strata here; widening at the bottom. It is filled with light; soft sandstone  and is 0.5 m across. At the top of the succession; the grey esk bed thickens and has collapsed into the joint/fault to fill it.  The lane south from Marchamley:  The Tarporley Sandstones and Siltstones continue up the hill and it is possible to walk up through the sequence which is described in detail by Pocock in the Wem Memoir. There is a section off the road on the west side where the strata is weathering purple/brown and is near horizontal. Red and grey sandy mudstones are very thinly bedded; only millimetres thick and a distinct micaceous sheen can be seen along the partings. The exposure here is 3 m high and 15 m long; showing alternation of harder and softer beds and the resultant differential erosion. The harder beds are more iron-rich. Fallen blocks give good opportunity to examine fresh rock samples. In some sandstone horizons pellets of mudstone are present. As one goes up the hill; thicker sometimes mottled; mudstone layers are seen up to 750 mm thick which are usually recessed below poriferous sandstone. Indeed the whole of this road section consists of alternating harder and softer horizons within the Tarporley Siltstones. There is clearly scope for detailed stratigraphical study here. Both the quarry and roadside exposures are readily accessible. RIGS Yes. Designation because the site demonstrates stratigraphical detail at the boundary between Helsby Sandstone and Tarporley Siltstones and allows close examination of sedimentary succession; structures and facies change. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1324 SJ 496 242 to SJ 496 247 Bilmarsh Lane - Middle and Broughton Track/roadside Triassic: Mercia Mudstone Formation: Mercia Mudstone (Keuper Marl). Sheet 138. Lane cut through Mercia Mudstone on N-facing slope. Mercia Mudstone is exposed for about 750 m on both sides of a lane; now a bridle path. At the southern end; slightly micaceous red mudstone occurs on each side. The rock is crumbly and there are thin broken layers of harder; sandier mudsone alternating with more argillaceous material. On the day visited; water washed over flat 'steps'; harder sandstone bands; in the path. Very thin soft beds are overlain by a metre of the harder; sandy mudstones; each bed about 40 mm thick; and dipping at less than 5° NW. The exposures improve northwards with mudstone broken into small; rectilinear blocks on an otherwise massive face with more sandstone on top. The mudstone is partly fissile and the harder bands are said by Pocock to be ‘poriferous’. Certainly small holes were seen in these horizons as were carbon fragments. There are many joints and several small faults with minor displacement.  At the northerly end; exposures are higher; being up to 4 m on both sides of the path; showing at least one good flat joint plane and sandstone layers up to 100 mm thick. The extent and condition of this exposure is the result of the presence of the alternating sandier; more resistant horizons. Public bridleway from Alderton. RIGS Yes. Designation because exposures of Mercia Mudstone are few and this demonstrates the characteristics of the Formation very well. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1325 SJ 360 139 Old Quarries - Loton Park - Alberbury Quarry (disused) Lower Permian: Alberbury Breccia ( see P. Toghill). Formerly classified as Upper Carboniferous. Because of the relative hardness of this rock the … (entry incomplete) At the north end of the quarries there is an impressive face up to 8 m high. Seen from a distance of 3 m the face looks massive and is vertical; having a red/brown sandy appearance. On closer examination; there is evidence of thin bedding and there is an apparent dip of about 15° NE. Large; sub-angular and sub-rounded fragments; many of them grey in colour occur at particular horizons. Many of the fragments are limestone and the presence of Lower Carboniferous fossils; e.g. Lithostrotion corals and crinoids; support the opinion that the source of these is Llanymynech Hill which lies a short distance to the west. There are also noticeable fragments of a more porcellaneous micritic limestone found in the same vicinity. Textures vary a great deal; some horizons being very fine; others much coarser. There is also evidence of cross-bedding reflected in the fragment pattern in the rock. One interesting structural feature is what appears to be a chimney-like joint tapering towards the bottom; with infilling of unsorted material; roughly aligned ranging from fine marl to coarser sand and breccia. Just round the corner in the same quarry is soft; mottled red/yellow crumbling material which has accumulated around the harder rock as if it has slipped and filled in available spaces. Some of the strata are thick and containing large fragments on the base of the beds. Good examples of grading can be seen. Differential erosion brings out variation in hardness between the beds. Further to the SW; above and beyond the lake; are many other exposures. One of these lies below the Deer Park wall and consists of a 3 m high; rather weathered face extending for about 10 m. There are very large limestone fragments visible in the breccia; some over 200 mm across; which in places demonstrate some alignment. One sees a jumble of mixed fragments including sandstone; quartz; marly pellets and crinoidal limestone. The matrix is calcareous and at times marly; there are also cavities formed by the dissolving out of the limy matrix. Close by there is an old limekiln; beautifully made and preserved; consisting of the Alberbury Breccia. Small stalactites of limy deposits occur on the roof. Throughout the Park the textures of the breccia are fascinating and would repay serious study. Some of the exposures can be seen from public footpaths but for more detailed study permission needs to be given by Sir Michael Leighton. RIGS Yes. Designation because the Alberbury Breccia is unique and here are excellent exposures which provide opportunity for textural studies and palaeo-environmental reconstruction. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1326 SJ 364 132 Loton Deer Park - Alberbury Cutting (road/railway) Lower Permian: Alberbury Breccia (Toghill). No geological map. Formerly classified as Upper Carboniferous. The highest sandstone of the underlying Keele Beds forms a bold escarpment in the west of the Deer Park and this exposure is cut into the lower beds of the Alberbury Breccia east of the top of the ridge. A good exposure on both sides of the track. The rock is up to 3 m high and displays regular stratification. These beds are at a lower horizon compared with those of the old quarries described in RIGS report SJ 360139 and contain smaller fragments on the whole. The appearance of the beds here is distinctly flaggy with even partings. Dip seems to be at 18° NE. The strata are only about 30 mm thick at the top of the exposure but reach 150 mm nearer the base. The stratification is not consistently regular; there being irregular blocks; even a rounded one on the north side. The faces which are broken by jointing; are quite badly weathered in places and textural detail is less good compared with the faces in the old quarries. At the sides of the footpath north of this site; Army activity dating from the Second World War has left many loose blocks of breccia which can be examined and there is a series of small rectilinear quarries along here which demonstrate a great variety of textures and are of a convenient size for close up study. Here the dip is about 10° roughly northerly in direction. Examination of true and apparent dip can be carried out effectively in these small quarries. Easy access from footpaths but permission should first be sought from Sir Michael Leighton; Loton Park Estate. RIGS Yes. Designation because the horizons in the cutting lie beneath the exposures in the old quarries and the two sites together give a more complete picture of the Formation as a whole. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1327 SJ 561 287 Wixhill Farm - Weston under Redcastle Mine/adit Triassic: Sherwood Sandstone Formation: Wildmoor Sandstone (f3) (Toghill). Sheet 138 uses old nomenclature Line of fault can be seen in separated exposures standing up abruptly in a NNE/SSW direction. It forms the edge of the higher sandstone terrain. An exposed fault plane along the line of the Brockhurst Fault at Wixhill where copper ore was worked from 1865-67. No real evidence of the copper ore was seen but the fault plane shows slickensiding and alteration of the Wildmoor Sandstone which here is harder and shows no cross-bedding. The exposure is 2 m high and a black mineral is present on the surface; probably manganese oxide. A few metres to the NE behind some vegetation; an exposure across the fault zone is present. On the right; near-horizontal thinly bedded strata suddenly become a vertical fault zone; broken and curving in places. Thin parallel veins of barytes; 10-20 mm wide occur within the fault structure. The altered sandstone is grey/pink/purple in colour and the most heavily mineralised patch is at the left-hand bottom corner of the exposure. Through the gate on the public footpath; a small old quarry is seen; its rock surfaces very badly weathered; but the face is vertical and it is clearly a continuation of the fault plane. From the lane which leads to the main road 'The Mount' is visible; marking the position of the fault line; here the Mercia Mudstones are faulted against the Tarporley Siltstones. Very close to a public footpath which goes through a seemingly disused farmyard. RIGS Yes. Designation because this is an excellent exposure of part of the Brockhurst Fault and associated features along which copper was formerly mined Mineralogy/Petrology
1328 SO 4415 9492 to SO 4434 9518 The Pike - Cardingmill - Church Stretton Bank Precambrian: Longmyndian: Stretton Series: Synalds Group A fine erosional feature of steeply dipping beds forming a hogs back ridge The ridges of ‘The Pike’ rise immediately from the NE side of the valley road and seem precisely aligned to the local strike of N030E. The longest extends for 430 m and the altitude of the crest increases from 225 m to 375 m AOD - an average gradient of about 1 in 3 so quite steep. Dip is consistently to the NW but angle varies between 60° and vertical. The ridges present an interesting case of development of a hogs back feature when the dip significantly exceeds 45°.  Retaining a hogs back terminology then the scarp slopes face SE but its slope angle cuts across the bedding and this is where most of the rock exposures occur. The dip slope faces NW but little rock is exposed and the general tendency is also for the slope to cut across the bedding. Above a junction 175 m from the road the stream runs between the ridges and is so deeply incised in parts as to be an object lesson in ‘gulley erosion’.  Above the stream junction it has cut through several metres of drift into underlying bedrock.  The Pike was selected as a GCR site ‘because it contains one the most informative and well exposed sections through the Synalds Formation’. Three localities are identified for description (Wilson 2001) and all are easily accessible via the stream which delimits the SE boundary of the exposures (see sketch map). This survey confirms that all the features of this description are present and readily recognisable. In particular:alternations of sandstone; often coarse; with siltstone & mudstone; a very conspicuous cleavage is developed in the finer grained purple silt and mudstones; visible lamination is planar or gently undulating; occasional thick massive beds of sandstone occur; typically 0.5 metres thick; basal sandstone surfaces can be weakly erosional cutting into underlying silt or mudstones. Differential erosion as between sand and mudstone is strongly developed; especially at locality 1 Samples collected for ‘slabbing’ show that sedimentary textures are perhaps more strongly developed than the GCR descriptions suggest. Coarse sandstone is only weakly graded but finer sandstone is notably admixed with layers of purple siltstone/mudstone in a variety of laminations and banding which can be markedly undulose; e.g. ripple or ripple drift lamination. Apparently homogenous purple mudstone can show quite strong convolute lamination. The alternations of beds is suggestive of turbidites and; for example; bedding surfaces of the purple mudstones are usually grooved and fluted and sometimes scalloped; although the latter seems to be an effect of interaction between minor slippage and bedding. It is on these surfaces that pit markings are common and examples interpreted as ‘rain-pits’ - although looking more like ‘drizzle pits’ - are frequently found.  Finally the exposures at localities 1 and 2 (and elsewhere) are crossed by incipient faults which produce effects demonstrating bedding competence; mudstones become sharply bent developing an angular fold very similar to kink banding whilst adjacent sandstones bend into gentle curves. Public access as part of Longmynd National Trust RIGS Yes. Designated both as an interesting and very explicit Geomorphological feature as well as providing extensive and detail rich sedimentary exposures. Really good exposures for sedimentary features plus cleavage and some minor faulting/folding. Structure and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1329 SJ 699 303 to 697 307 Cheswardine Road Bridge (Cheswardine canal cutting) - Sutton upon Tern Cutting (road/railway) Triassic: Bunter Pebble Beds (Chester Pebble Beds) and Upper Carboniferous: Keele Beds Man-made excavation Best exposure of Keele Beds is just SE of the High Bridge where dull red/purple sandstone layers alternate with soft red marls. There are apparently (see Whitehead; p.17) five principal sandstone layers in this section; the thickest bed is up to 3 m. Sandstone layers are variable in thickness and can be seen wedging out among the marls. Recesses mark the position of marl horizons below projecting sandstone. Unfortunately the marls are very overgrown and disintegrate into mud although red and greenish horizons are apparent. They are noticeably fissile. Fallen blocks of sandstone and marl are found on the towpath and allow examination of fresh surfaces so that sedimentary structures e.g. ripple bedding is evident. The dip is mostly gentle and there seems to be a shallow anticlinal structure between High Bridge and a fault which brings up the Chester Pebble Beds. Visibility was poor on the day of the survey as fog shrouded the canal so the strata on the east side was not easy to see!  Between Cheswardine road bridge and a fault which crosses the canal 100 m to the north; Chester Pebble Beds are exposed. It is not easy to locate the exact position of the fault but the approximate junction of Pebble Beds and Keele Formation can be found. The best exposures of Pebble Beds occur closest to the fault where 5 m high massive sandstone with pockets and layers of mostly quartzite pebbles can be seen. The brown-red sandstone beds (with large scale cross-bedding) are up to a metre thick and contain variable densities of pebbles (some aligned with the cross-beds; others scattered randomly). The pebbles show a range of sizes from a few millimetres to 150 mm across mostly showing evidence of rounding.  At the southern end the beds are thinner (200-300 mm) and contain more pebbles. By public towpath on the west side of canal. East side not easily reached. RIGS Yes. Designation because this is considered the best available site in the area for the Keele Formation and particularly well demonstrates details of channel form enabling interpretation of Late Carboniferous and early Permian geological history. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1330 SJ 656 193 Shray Hill - Cherrington Quarry (disused) Permo-Trias: Chester Pebble Beds (close to f1/f2 boundary on Sheet 138) Pebble Beds form a hill. The front of the site is seen from the Newport/Shrewsbury road. The exposure at the front has been used as a tip by the farmer and access to the faces is not easy. However; a 5-6 m high exposure can be seen showing red; cross-bedded sandstone with chaotic slumping on the right. The dip is approx. NW. The beds vary in thickness and a scattering of mostly sub-rounded quartz pebbles; max. length 50 mm; is visible. The cross-bedded units are clearly seen and overlap.  The best exposures are found on the west side; and are reached from a lane and by crossing a field. Here up to 8 m of massive red sandstone is present with thin yellowish horizons. The top 1.5 m are thinner and display distinct cross stratification. There is a very interesting infilled vertical structure which seems to show slight displacement on the right; suggesting a fault rather than a joint; and along the face are excellent examples of cross stratification with opportunity to study 3-D deposition. The exposures are close to base of the Pebble Beds and pebbles can be seen in the sandstone at ground level. These are sub-rounded to sub-angular. The site is very good for the study of sedimentary structures and there are swirling; pseudo-folds and sweeping cross-beds mostly orientated from right to left (south to north approx.).  The site seems to suggest deposition from fluvial processes. Not public but permission can be obtained. RIGS Yes. Designation because this is an excellent example of fluvial deposition in early 'Bunter'  times with opportunity to study a range of sedimentary structures and to reconstruct palaeo-environments. Important for local building stone. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1331 SJ 689 327 Tyrley Locks Cutting (road/railway) Permo-Trias: Lower Mottled (Bridgnorth) Sandstone and Bunter (Chester) Pebble Beds. Sheet 139. Man-made excavation Clear strata can be seen in the canal cutting just north of the Tyrley road bridge extending for a distance of at least 300 m.  At the southern end where the locks begin a bright red soft sandstone is exposed with no discernible pebbles but displaying excellent cross-bedding with units dipping at angles varying from 20° to 30°. There is one particularly good saucer-shaped dune type unit 9 m across. These beds appear to be wind-blown deposits consistent with the Permian desert facies of Bridgnorth Sandstone. In places there is distinct yellowish mottling including a thin 40 mm yellow horizon. There is a gradual change to Chester Pebble Beds as thin layers of pebbles begin to appear above the cross-bedded sandstone. Within the more massive sandstone beds is what could be evidence of channelling suggesting a change to fluviatile conditions. The pebble layers appear at the top of the exposure and dip approx. N before reaching ground level. These layers are up to 250 mm thick with scattered random pebbles of mixed sizes throughout the sandstone at the northern end of the cutting. Sometimes the pebbles form densely packed lenses. On the east side of the cutting similar strata are also displayed but it is interesting to note that 0.5 m thick sandstone beds; here nearly horizontal; occur opposite cross-bedded pebbly layers and lenses. Max. height of the exposed strata is 4-5 m. Public canal towpath. RIGS Yes. Designation because there are extensive easily accessible exposures of Permo-Triassic strata useful for interpreting variation in facies and providing a complementary sequence to that at Cheswardine cutting. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1332 SJ 714 194 The Rockhole - Edgmond Quarry (disused) Permo-Trias: Chester Pebble Beds. Sheet 139. Pebble Beds form higher ground in Edgmond (and in the area around). Quarry is cut into the hill. This is a first rate large site which has many interesting features. The rock is essentially a coarse red sandstone; distinctly bright where the faces are fresh. Within it are scattered pebbles; mainly vein quartz and quartzite. At the base of the main north face are thick beds a metre or so in thickness. Above 2 m there is a marked change to cross-bedded units; very well displayed. These are mostly low-angle; 10°-15° and multi-directional; indicating shifting currents. Within the cross beds the sandstone is finely laminated and contains more pebbles showing some alignment. The boundary at 2 m is very definite. The pebbles are sub-rounded to angular; maximum length being 70 mm. Because of recesses; it is possible to see the cross-beds in 3-D which is useful for working out palaeo-currents. At a height of about 5 m; at the top of the quarry face; the strata become more thinly bedded with horizontal partings. Both vertical and oblique joints are evident as are at least 3 faults with displacement of 40-50 mm. On the south side is an interesting irregular collapsed fault or joint where cross-beds have steeper dip. No evidence of mineralisation or slickensided surfaces were found. Slump structures and graded lamination can be identified in the sandstone. At the east end of the quarry are two major recesses at two levels. These appear to correspond with the presence of a dark red/brown fissile; shaly marl containing mica flakes and finely bedded with horizontal partings. At the higher horizon; the marl was up to 0.5 m thick. A public footpath goes through and access to faces is excellent. RIGS Yes. Designation because it is an impressive site in the Chester Pebble Beds; large accessible and demonstrates a variety of sedimentary structures besides providing opportunities for interpretation so that palaeo-environments can be reconstructed. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1333 SO 767 994 Badger Dingle - Badger Cliff Triassic: Sherwood Sandstone: Helsby Sandstone (Toghill) Deeply cut dingle in the Worfe valley. The Helsby Sandstone forms a prominent escarpment in this area. There is a 5 m high cliff of coarse red sandstone with pebbles roughly aligned within the massive horizon and finely bedded cross-stratification at its base. Under this and recessed is a 300 mm thick bed of red-brown calcareous marl which displays an arching structure. In places the sand deposition has caused distortion of the marl and swirls can be seen (see photo). The pebbles 40 mm max. length are mixed with fragments of marl and are mostly angular in shape. This is described as calcareous marl conglomerate. There are also thin laminations of micaceous sandstone within the thicker beds. A little further along the exposure to the west irregular pebbly bands alternate with bright red purer weak sandstone with visible light quartz grains. Several vertical joints (recessed and infilled) divide up the face and there is possible faulting because the sandstone appears to have moved and slumping is evident. Rock falls occur and loose blocks can be examined at the foot of the cliff; these display interesting textures. There are more exposures and interesting ornamental features e.g. grottoes and caves in the rest of the dingle. Although the dingle is private a public footpath crosses it very close to the exposure described. RIGS Yes. Designation because it is a clear exposure of the calcareous marl pebbly sandstone and various structural features representative of the Helsby Sandstone Formation. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1336 SJ 6710 3325 Walkmill Nature Reserve Cliff Permo-Trias: Chester Pebble Beds. Part of a river cliff along the Tern. There is an exposure of massive cross-bedded sandstone about 4 m high and 80 m long. The cross-bedding consists of large scale units with sporadic pebbles. The first cliff section reached from the entrance is rather disappointing because of the deterioration of faces obscured by moss and vegetation; and detail is hard to see; although a pebbly layer is seen at the base of the cliff. The section improves further along and the bottom 1.5 m consists of a bed of randomly distributed pebbles recessed below a thick sandstone unit. Pebbles can be seen along the layers of the cross-beds. The sandstone is orange/red; showing fine laminations and some graded bedding. The sedimentary structures are interesting; particularly some 'folds' in the stratification which may be a form of slump structure. The texture of the sandstone varies from being coarse to much finer. By public footpath in the nature reserve. RIGS Yes. Designation because of its potential as an example of Chester Pebble Beds within a SWT Reserve and is included on the Nature Trail here. (A badger sett has been excavated in the sandstone) Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1337 SJ 472 068 and SJ 473 067 Lyth Hill Natural exposure Precambrian: Longmyndian: Wentnor Group: Bayston-Oakswood Formation. Sheet 152. At the top and bottom of the south-facing fault scarp of Lyth Hill. The conglomerate is exposed in a band down the hill; the best exposure being at the top; near to the footpath. This is at SJ472068. Along the footpath; parallel to the road; coarse conglomerate begins to appear 45 m before the main exposure. By the stile a large exposure is seen; height 5 m. It has a smooth surface but is traversed by parallel pebble bands projecting from the matrix in a N-S direction. These bands are packed with pebbles; size ranging from a few mm to over 80 mm. Pebbles are sub-rounded to sub angular and are of mixed composition but mainly of quartzite and vein quartz with a few igneous ones. A few metres further along; there is a sort of grotto with excellent conglomerate; the distinct bands are not so obvious here but there is a possible fault at this site with evidence of disturbance and some fragmentation of the rock. This is the Stanbatch Conglomerate; displaced eastward by the Lyth Hill Fault. Below this very good exposure; the conglomerate can be traced down the hillside and at SJ 473067 another good but smaller exposure can be examined. Here many rhyolitic pebbles were identified. Along public footpaths. RIGS Yes. Designation because this is an excellent; accessible; impressive example of the Stanbatch Conglomerate within the Wentnor grits and sandstones. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1338 SJ 315 139 Bulthy Car Park - Wollaston Natural exposure Ordovician: Caradoc Series: Breidden Volcanic Group: Bulthy Formation: Bomb Rock. At the foot of the northern-most end of Bulthy Hill; one of the volcanic hills of the Breidden group (but in England!). Amazing large rounded boulders set in a massive face - one of those 'wow' sites!  The boulders or 'bombs' are between 300 and 600 mm across projecting from the matrix of tuff. The height of the face is about 3 m and width of this particular face 7 m or so. At the top the 'bombs' are densely packed while lower down; they are less so but moulds of the ones that fell out are a distinct feature of the exposure. The 'bombs' themselves are of andesitic tuff. To the right of this face there is a fault showing slickensiding; brecciation and infilling. The matrix rock is a grey; purple and granular; with small tuffaceous fragments and shows clear stratification especially where the number of 'bombs' is fewer. Near the west end of the quarry are major bedding planes up to 5 m high dipping at approx. 60°. Here; the rock is mainly tuff and there appears to be a N-S trending fault; the plane dipping inwards at approx. 70°. The whole quarry is worth looking at and has great potential. The lane goes through and the quarry is used for parking. Easy public access makes the site a very useful one. RIGS Yes. Designation because there is nothing like this elsewhere in Shropshire. The site admirably demonstrates an environment of explosive vulcanicity and deposition of a water-lain conglomerate in submarine fans. Can be studied along with the related rocks of the Breiddens over the border. Fairly recent work on this formation was done in 1986 by Dixon. Mineralogy/Petrology
1339 SJ 309 133 Bulthy Mine - Wollaston Mine/adit Ordovician: Caradoc Series: Breidden Volcanics: Bulthy Formation. No geological map; refer to Toghill Off the path between Bulthy and Middletown Hills; SE side. There are several old mine shafts in the area and this one is clearly along a fault. It is an excellent example of a fault with associated features. Firstly; brecciated fragments form an encrusting layer on both sides of the tunnel entrance; these vary in size from 150 mm across to very small angular fragments. The rock type is an andesitic tuff. Secondly there are slickensided surfaces and thirdly; much barytes mineralisation. This forms an irregular vein 300-550 mm across. Going into the mine entrance the mineralisation is seen to form the roof in which barytes crystals are clearly visible. It was then realised that the miners had been extracting barytes which had formed along the fault as a substantial mineral vein. There were no signs of other minerals. The tunnel rises at a steep gradient and can be entered to obtain better views of the barytes crystallisation. This seems to be a significant fault crossing between Middletown and Bulthy Hills. Along the footpath are other overgrown tunnels and spoil with loose pieces of barytes scattered around. Public footpath just on the Shropshire/Powys boundary so access is open and easy. RIGS Yes. Designation because this really is a magnificent fault in the Bulthy Formation with excellent associated features and a good example of former mining on the border. Mineralogy/Petrology
1340 SJ 415 055 and SJ 414 052 and SJ 416 054 Habberley Brook - Pontesbury Stream/brook Precambrian: Longmyndian: Wentnor Formation: Bayston and Oakswood Group.  Sheet 152. Deeply cut narrow valley on east of Earl's Hill. The Lyd Hole is a spectacular site where a series of waterfalls; a chute of water; and vertical sides of a gorge occur with a varied suite of Uriconian volcanic rocks and Longmyndian sediments. Parts of the site are too dangerous to allow close examination by many field workers; indeed it was the present surveyer's 'assistant' who actually reached the heart of the site!  Even then; the rock surfaces are weathered; obscured by algae and fresh rock samples not easily found. A pinkish rock; probably rhyolite was seen and some rotten basalt; but the key boundary remained elusive in view of the conditions.  Above the waterfalls there is; apparently; one of the few places in the Welsh Borderland where a contact between Western Uriconian and Longmyndian rocks is exposed. The presence of Uriconian fragments in the Longmyndian sediments here is strong evidence that the Western Uriconian rocks pre-date the Longmyndian. The junction is of considerable historical interest; having been the subject of an intense controversy between a number of researchers.  Near to the Lyd Hole along the Habberley Brook are three more exposures of interest. At the 'entrance' to the gorge the rock is a distinct conglomerate; the Radlith Conglomerate; earliest of the three bands of conglomerate in the Wentnor Series in this area; it dips at about 60° ESE. Then back along the brook at SJ 416054; a very good exposure of the Oakswood Conglomerate can be examined on the east bank of the brook. Four metres are exposed and large; up to 120 mm; densely packed pebbles occur with very little purple/red matrix. This is the middle band of the three conglomerates; it dips steeply; again in an approximate easterly direction. At SJ 414052 steeply dipping pebbly grits (75°) with pebbles up to 10 mm are exposed along the footpath. This is the fairly typical purple sandstone of the Longmyndian. Harder bands alternate with softer; crumbling ones within which are 3 mm layers of grey sediments. Calcite veining is evident in places. This is a good exposure easily examined. The latter couple of sites are readily accessible as they are by the footpath; but the Lyd Hole is difficult to reach especially when the brook is high. Not to be recommended except for seriously fit geologists! RIGS Yes. Designation because of the SSSI designation and the importance of the Uriconian/Longmyndian boundary and the use of this for unravelling the Precambrian sequence. The assessment rating is very high because of this despite the limitations of the Lyd Hole for general educational use (only suitable for fit adults). Structure and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1341 SJ 409 048 Earls Hill -  Pontesbury Cliff Precambrian: Uriconian Volcanics. Sheet 152. Steep-sided hill rising to 320 m. The description takes the form of a traverse up and over the hill. At the N end of Pontesford Hill is a disused quarry; now a scrap yard. It is rather insalubrious but rhyolite is exposed. This has some potential but at the moment is of limited value. A better exposure by the footpath near the car-park shows brecciated rhyolite; with flow banding and spherulitic structures dipping at about 40°. The best rhyolite is found near the top of the hill fort where a NW-facing exposure up to 4 m high and 10 m across displays fine; flinty rhyolite with good examples of spherulites.  On the steep climb through the plantation small exposures of rhyolitic tuff can be seen but the path soon goes through dolerite/basalt. There is evidence of vesicles and texture is fine so although dolerite is indicated on the geological map; the rock mainly resembles basalt. Out in the open; at the top of Pontesford Hill; are sporadic exposures of dolerite while at the summit of Earl's Hill there are broken fragments of basalt. From the top; extensive panoramic views allow excellent geological interpretation of the landscape. Purple tuffs with suggestion of haematite and showing some flow-banding; are exposed on the steep descent. Following the footpath NE along the bottom of the hill a loose block of barytes; 0.5 m across; was seen as well as vesicular rhyolite; the latter indicating explosive episodes of vulcanicity. The best site on the hill is the impressive scree slope where fragments of basalt have reached a state of near equilibrium below the towering crags (SJ 410048). Blocks of scree material are up to 0.5 m across and presumably owe their origin to freeze-thaw conditions towards the end of the last Ice Age. It is interesting to note that above the path the scree looks relatively fresh and has little vegetation whereas below it has the appearance of a fossil scree; now colonised by mosses and other ground cover. All the exposures mentioned are on or close to public footpaths and are readily accessible. RIGS Yes. Designation for the whole hill as it is a significant faulted inlier of Uriconian Volcanics with fair exposures illustrating the variety of igneous rocks present. The scree slope is surely one of the few such periglacial features in Shropshire. Mineralogy/Petrology
1342 SJ 467 066 - extends from SJ 467 066 to 469 066 Lyth Hill Natural exposure Precambrian: Longmyndian: Wentnor Series. Exposures on fault scarp of Lyth Hill. There are many exposures on Lyth Hill (large and small); this description only deals with the area between the given grid references. Here the Wentnor Grit does not seem to be typical and appears to have been affected by the fault. Because the grits apparently contain grains of various igneous rocks the colour varies from greenish purple to blackish. Also the fault appears to have changed the texture to one where the grains appear fused and resemble an igneous rock. There is a series of good exposures at the foot of the slope (up to 6 m high) but there are distinct signs of fragmentation resulting from faulting. Bedding can be discerned and is steeply dipping towards the east. Patches of purple and pink occur and there are several quartz veins. The rock is essentially a coarse grit with a few scattered pebbles. Joints and fractures give a shattered appearance; there being several small faults. About 30 m from the west end are slickensided surfaces associated with quartz mineralisation and brecciation; these are oblique to the main Lyth Hill fault and have a trend of 120°. As the footpath climbs round the fence at the west end loose fragments of more typical purple grit occur and behind the fence small exposures of this are found in the trees. A quartz vein up to 30 mm thick was seen in the purple/pink gritty sandstone in which were scattered pebbles up to 3 mm in size. Public footpaths in the country park. RIGS Yes. Designation because this site while not being the clearest and easiest to use is important for interpretation of the geology of Lyth Hill and the effect of faulting in this vicinity. It is recommended that the whole of Lyth Hill should be a RIGS. Structure
1343 SJ 615 062 to 611 070 Chermes Dingle - Leighton Stream/brook Lower Cambrian: Comley Series; Lower Ordovician: Tremadoc Series: Sheinton Shales. Sheet SJ 60. A deeply cut stream on the south slopes of the Wrekin. Along the Dingle there are many exposures; mainly of Sheinton Shale but also some exposure of the Lower Comley sandstone and limestone. A strike fault separates the two formations and although the fault itself cannot be seen; the approximate position can be inferred by finding the spot where Sheinton Shales overlie the Comley Limestone. The contact is not visible but shales are seen dipping north then becoming contorted and then dipping the opposite way; a few metres upstream; limestone appears in the stream bed and rather poor exposures are seen in the banks. Hard bands of dark grey limestone cross the stream bed; weathering along joints resulting in a broken appearance. Bank exposures are badly weathered and although greenish sandy siltstones are there; they have been weathered brownish and are hard to distinguish. There is no regular bedding; the faces being somewhat chaotic in appearance. The limestone seen was probably the Lapworthella Limestone; but the Upper Comley Series; reputedly present here in the Dingle was not seen by the present surveyor. Downstream of the fault already mentioned; there are small; discontinuous sections through the Sheinton Shales exposed in the banks. The three lowest divisions can be examined; Dictyonema flabelliforme zone; the Transition Beds; and the Clonograptus tenellus zone. Graptolite specimens were obtained from the two named zones. The Sheinton Shales are blue/grey or olive in colour; are very finely laminated; show a high degree of fissility and often weather brown; even orange. A few large disc-like concretions were seen within the beds; showing cone-in-cone structure and having a diameter of over 350 mm. There is much variation in angle of dip; from 80° to less than 20°; direction of dip is mainly between south and south-east but there are exceptions where northerly dips are found near the fault with the Comley Series and in places there are contortions and even 'anticlinal' structures which give the appearance of folding. Not suitable for large groups as the Dingle is private and viewing the sites requires scrambling along the stream bed and negotiating various obstacles and steep slopes at times. RIGS Yes. Designation because Cherme's Dingle provides the most complete and best exposed section through the L. Sheinton Shales in their type area (see SSSI reference) including the only exposure of the Transition Beds in the area. From this locality many species of trilobites and graptolites were first described. The evolution through time of the Sheinton Shale fossil fauna can be seen here and this helps in relative dating of this Formation. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1344 SJ 357 137 and SJ 355 136 Loton Park - Alberbury Quarry (disused) Upper Carboniferous/ Permian: Keele Beds/Basal Alberbury Breccia. No geological map; reference in P. Toghill: 'Geology in Shropshire'. West facing slope of NW/SE trending ridge. An extensive linear exposure 60 m across and 4-5 m high; so is an impressive face. According to R.W. Pocock there is a marked boundary between the Keele Beds and overlying Alberbury Breccia; but the present surveyor did not find a convincing one. There is a distinct change near the top of the exposure from more massive beds to less regular; thinner strata which at first was thought to be the boundary. However; the lower beds; which show clear cross stratification; are as full of fragments as the ones above and do not seem to fit the description of the Keele sandstones. In particular; there is grading of fragments with some over 80 mm down to a few millimetres - see photo. These beds appear to be near the base of the Alberbury Breccia rather than belonging to the Keele Beds. This site would benefit from closer examination. Two metres to the right of this example of grading is a vertical discontinuity; probably a fault with infilling and limy precipitation; now occupied by badgers. Two hundred metres or so SW of the above site at SJ355136; is an exposure of red-brown medium textured sandstone 3-4 m high. It contains scattered pebbles rather than fragments; some sub-rounded. The size of these varies but is up to 40 mm and a crinoid ossicle was identified.  Strata dips at about 20° NNE and the overall appearance is of irregular; blocky beds with thin horizons in between.  Below the main exposure a more flaggy sandstone is seen. At this site the strata can more readily be identified with the Keele Beds but the absence of a geological map makes confirmation impossible. Easily accessible from a non-public footpath in the deer park but permission is necessary. RIGS Yes. Designation on the grounds of its being near to the Carboniferous/Permian boundary and complements the other sites at Alberbury giving a full picture of the nature of the distinctive breccia. Whether this is to be a RIGS on its own or combined with others in the deer park is a matter for discussion. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1345 SJ 583 293 Hawkstone Obelisk Cutting (road/railway) Triassic: Mercia Mudstone Formation: Tarporley Siltstones. Sheet 138. New nomenclature from Toghill. South scarp slope of sandstone ridge. Here there is a distinct boundary between the massively bedded f4 Helsby Sandstones found in much of Hawkstone Park and the overlying thinly bedded; mottled Tarporley Siltstones; formerly Waterstones. The boundary is marked by a recess. The siltstones dip north-north-west at 7° and a detailed section through the various horizons can be studied from south to north. Height of the exposure is about 4 m. Above the Helsby Sandstone is the Esk Bed; loose sand with barytes crystals; according to Pocock; although the present surveyor was not able to identify it; mainly through lack of time. However; flaggy; reddish sandstone; sometimes rubbly and calcareous was clear to see with red siltstone showing evidence of mica flakes. A hard sandy horizon about 2 m from the ground was distinctive. Regular parallel jointing; also parallel to the dip produces a 'bay/promontory' effect here. Besides the red beds are alternating bands of grey. This description fits Pocock's 6 ft sandstone layer immediately above the Esk Bed. Given more time; a more detailed description of the overlying beds could have been done. Follow a path east from the Obelisk for about 300 m. The main part of the cutting is in Hawkstone Park. Avoid the land beyond the 'private' notice. RIGS Yes. Designation because here is a clear; significant boundary between Helsby Sandstone and Tarporley Siltstones and an excellent section through the latter. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1346 SJ 575 294 Hawkstone Terrace Cliff Triassic: Sherwood Sandstone Formation: Helsby Sandstone (Grinshill Sandstone); overlying Wildmoor Sandstone (Upper Mottled Sandstone). Sheet 138 (older nomenclature f4 over f3). Cliffs of the scarp slope of Hawkstone escarpment. The footpath along the Terrace runs parallel to impressive cliffs of pale Grinshill Sandstone; the upper part of which shows excellent cross-bedding. Traces of copper show up green; and near the Swiss Bridge discrepancies in dip direction and angle indicate a fault which can be seen a little further on beside the path. Here the sandstone looks rubbly and has weathered to produce a pseudo-spheroidal effect. At the Retreat; soft barytes-rich pale sandstone forms the back face of this feature; the sand reminiscent of beach sand and the barytes nodules making an interesting texture. At this point along the terrace are impressive parallel fault planes with green and orange mineralisation; trending NNW/SSE. Slickensiding suggests lateral movement; possibly right to left. A series of faults can be studied between the Retreat and Indian Rock. Fox's Nob is a pinnacle of Grinshill Sandstone with a flat slab at the top; consisting of irregular; massive blocks. Barytes forms discontinuous layers; 20 mm thick standing proud from the surface. Beautiful cross-bedding occurs here; the dark minerals (iron oxide?) emphasising the structure. From this point onwards a red sandstone makes its appearance beneath the pale rock. There is no clear break between the two but the red sandstone seems to belong to the underlying Wildmoor Formation; seen at the base of the Red Castle and outcropping over a larger area in the east of Hawkstone Park. Along Reynard's Walk 10 m of the latter sandstone is exposed. High angle; large-scale cross-bedding with barytes following the partings occurs here. About 1.5 m from the base is a horizontal plane below which the soft; well-sorted; medium sandstone with no pebbles; is recessed. There are barytes 'flows' up to a metre long looking like mini frozen waterfalls. The faces described in this report are but a few and there is much scope in Hawkstone to make further studies. By footpaths within Hawkstone Park (entrance charge applies). RIGS Yes. Designation because the sedimentary and tectonic structures are of excellent quality and the cliff formations are very impressive. Also; the change from Wildmoor to Grinshill Sandstone can be observed in several locations. Structure and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1347 SJ 573 298 and SJ 571 295 Hawkstone; Grotto Hill and Red Castle Cliff Triassic: Sherwood Sandstone Formation: Helsby Sandstone (Ryton and Grinshill Sandstones) overlying Wildmoor Sandstone (Upper Mottled Sandstone). Sheet 138 (older nomenclature f4 over f3) 'residual cliffs' at west end of Hawkstone escarpment. At the top of Grotto Hill; white/buff sandstone (Grinshill) is exposed as spectacular cliffs. The top 3-4 m consist of irregular cross-bedded blocks; the inclination being uni-directional towards the SW. Just below the cross-stratified blocks is a smoothed; concave; copper-stained surface. Below the copper staining the sandstone bulges out before over-hanging softer more crumbly material. Height must be about 50 m with a sheer drop. Underfoot at the view-point on Grotto Hill; fine 'flowing' laminations in the sandstone can be seen and there are irregular white crystals of barytes which also fills small joints. This makes an interesting texture. The beds underfoot are seen to dip WNW at about 20°.  Near the entrance to the Grotto itself; formerly a series of caves and passages associated with copper mining; a fault plane is evident and the sandstone; fairly fine-grained here; has some iron-rich horizons. From the view-point; the Red Castle; a small outlier can be seen clearly; of particular note is the colour change in the rock which reflects the red Wildmoor Sandstone at its base passing up into the light Grinshill Formation. Because the remains of the castle are unsafe it is not permitted for the public to climb up to it at present. Inside the grotto; old copper mine tunnels have been made into a 'feature' and green staining and surface encrustation of copper compounds are still apparent on walls and ceiling. A torch is recommended!  One exit leads down the cliff via 'the cleft' where more thinly bedded sandstone forms 7 m high walls either side of a steep; narrow path which follows a fault plane. Despite moss; some rough stratification is visible; cross-bedding; infilled diagonal joints and the whole face has a rubbly appearance. By public footpaths in Hawkstone Park (entrance charge applies). RIGS Yes. Designation because this is a spectacular; accessible site which demonstrates textural and structural features of Grinshill Sandstone and provides a good view of the transition to red Wildmoor Sandstone beneath. Link with copper mining is an added feature of interest. Mineralogy/Petrology
1348 SJ 2690 2205 and various others mentioned in the text Llanymynech and Blodwell Rocks Quarry (disused) Lower Carboniferous: Carboniferous Limestone: Lower Limestone. Sheet 137. South-east flank of Llanymynech Hill and crest of Blodwel Escarpment. Although the best exposures in this area are in Powys and so are not reported on; the sites described here are good and show impressive vertical faces in the disused quarry within the Nature Reserve at the grid reference indicated. The quarry face rises to over 30 m and the strata look horizontal but this is apparent dip; the true dip being mostly NE but varies. At the base of the cliff; the beds are thick (0.75 m) with clear stratification; texture is fine and flinty; the rock being dove grey in colour. There are thin shaly horizons which tend to disintegrate and sometimes harder; more slaty partings. Near vertical joints divide the beds into blocks. Apparently there is evidence of dolomitisation along some of the joints. In these lower beds there is a saucer-shaped structure thinning out at the edges and about 5 m across; whether this is a small synclinal structure or a sedimentary one was not clear. Above 5-6 m the rock looks pink and the beds are more variable in thickness; some being flaggy. Coarsely crstalline limestone was noticed but the height of the cliff did not allow close examination of the higher beds. It is possible to walk from here into Wales and examine the better known sites at SJ 265 217.  2. From here walk along the Blodwel Escarpment. The path takes the crest but various small faults cross the escarpment and are interesting to examine. At SJ 2655 2270; exposures of limestone with close parallel dip joints are seen; here the dip is about 40° ENE but on the other side of the path; it is 10° SE. This seems to be the result of faulting; evidenced by a cleft a few metres along the path; where slickensiding and brecciated rock occur. A central wedge appears to have dropped and movement is greater on the south side. Trend of fault is E-W. This seems to be related to the copper mining in this area. There are other faults cutting across the escarpment; notably one at SJ 268 233 where the fault leads to two adits at different levels. Here are big cliff faces with dark-weathering; thick (300 mm to over a metre); strongly jointed limestone beds with clay-shale partings. The dip appears to be south-easterly.Views here are magnificent towards the Welsh mountains. There is plenty of scope to explore this area in more detail!  3. Just off the footpath at approx. SJ 274 234 there is an interesting exposure 4-5 m high and extending for 50 m or so comprising limestone beds of varying thickness (0.10-0.75 m) succeeded by rubbly limestone which looks like a breccio-conglomerate; roughly stratified and dipping SE at 10°-20°.  It is the latter that is unusual; the fragments are held in very little chemically precipitated cement and the rock has a nodular appearance and is poriferous. Large; discoid; colonial; rugose corals 300 mm across; are found within these beds; although some are upside down suggesting they have drifted there after death. The fossils have recrystallised and so much of the detail has been lost but they are mostly Lonsdaleia floriformis with a few single corals; probably Dibunophyllum. All these sites lie on or near to public footpaths so access is open. RIGS Yes. Designation for the sites as a whole because they provide a good range of exposures in the Lower Limestone showing a range of sedimentary and structural features as well as evidence of the former copper mining history of the area and are all on the English side of the border. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1349 SJ 432 143 Preston Montford Cliff Quaternary: Pleistocene. Sheet 152; Drift. Severn river cliff A spectacular example of varved clay resting on fluvio-glacial sands and gravels. The exposure is approx. 3 m high and 5 m across and magnificent varves are immediately apparent.  1. The lowest metre consists of till containing unsorted blocks and fragments ranging in diameter from a few millimetres to over 300 mm. The fragments are angular to sub-angular with a few more rounded ones. The erratics in the till are variable in composition; including red sandstone; grey sand/siltstone; tuff; quartzite; basalt; shale and tiny fragments of amethyst and vein quartz. In the middle of the till is a convex lens of closely-packed stratified fragments in a red/brown sandy matrix; apparently dipping towards the south at 20°-25°. The stratification suggests fluvio-glacial origin for these deposits.  2. The boundary is definite but uneven with some large loose blocks marking the change to clays and fine sands.  3. The thin layers of clay; sand and small fragments are lain on the uneven surface forming an arched structure on the right. The colours are striking; being orange; khaki and various shades of brown with a greater thickness of sand just above the boundary on the left.  4. Above this boundary zone fragments become isolated and sporadic but the arched structure continues at the southern end of the exposure becoming more horizontal upwards and northwards. The varves are excellent examples; varying in thickness and colour but there seems to be a correlation between the darker and more clayey horizons. Close up it is possible to distinguish the alternating fine clays and lighter; slightly coarser; sandier horizons.  5. At about 2.5 m there is a harder; sandier; coarser; orange band about 250 mm thick; above which the varved effect seems to fade out. Only through the grounds of Preston Montford Field Centre from whom permission MUST first be sought. RIGS Yes. Designation because this is an outstanding and rare example of clearly exposed varve clays associated with pro-glacial lakes during the retreat of ice sheets in this area and their interpretation. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1350 SJ 495 073 and see location map Condover Pit; Bomere; Shomere and Betton Pool Quarry (disused) Quaternary: fluvio-glacial sands and gravels Hummocky landscape with depressions and pools. The landscape is one of hummocks; depressions (often marshy or water-filled) and sandy ridges. The sand shows through grass-covered low hills. Bomere Pool and the others occupy natural depressions in the glacial drift left by ice-sheets some 15 000 years ago; they are steep sided and can probably be classed as kettle hole lakes. Groundwater levels indicate that Bomere Pool and probably the others are perched features and isolated from groundwater in the underlying sands and gravels. There is a close correlation between the landscape features and the contour lines of the 1:25 000 OS map. The Trout Pool (SJ 501 076) seems to be a kettle hole deepened and restored artificially for fishing and recreation and there is a seepage channel at its low point flowing SE intermittently. Above this pool is a small damp depression. At the Condover Sand Pit; Norton Farm; the site is in a continuous state of change and as such it is not possible to identify a RIGS. There are many features of geological interest; however; from deep steep-sided kettle holes; including the place where the Shropshire Mammoth was discovered; now a clean water lagoon; to unstable banks of pure sand inter-bedded with gravels.  The characteristically hummocky topography is a reflection of the complex sequence of underlying glacial sands; gravels and clays which lies below the surface. The thickness of superficial deposits is dependant upon the surface elevation and variable elevation of the Keele Beds below the drift and varies from 10 m to over 38.5 m. A lane and public footpath crosses the hummocky terrain and goes along the north side of Bomere Pool and Betton Pool. Bomere Wood and Shomere Pool are on private land. Access to the sand and gravel workings need prior permission from Hansons. RIGS Yes. Designation because this is a classic landscape of glacial deposition with kettle hole lakes next to a working quarry where more detailed sections of sands and gravels can; with permission; be clearly seen. It is also the place of discovery of the Shropshire Mammoth. Geomorphology/Landscape
1355 SO 200 814 Rhyd-y-Groes Quarry (disused) Silurian; Clun Forest Formation  (ref 1) The quarry is excavated in a low ridge which defines the outcrop of an east to west trending band of sandstone In following the outcrop of a band of sandstone the quarry is orientated east to west with all the remaining faces on the northern side. The quarry is overall some 50 m long and is excavated at three levels. The highest level is at the western end where sandstones are exposed in a 2 m high face. Below this (to the east) is the main intermediate level where there is a wide face some 5 m high. This displays some three 1 m thick posts of massive grey/green arkose separated by 100 mm layers of soft reddish claystone (marl) partings. All units (sandstone and marl) are cross-bedded with a uniform apparent inclination of about 20° to the east. Finally there is a lower level at the eastern end where sandstone is exposed to a height of 8 m. This probably represents the full thickness of the sandstone band since dip (as measured by inclination of marl layers) is near horizontal. Unfortunately this lowest level contains too much rubbish and organic refuse to be approachable. From the cross-roads at Bettws-y-Crwyn take the lane heading west. In 600 m a gate gives access to a field at the top of which is seen ‘gruffy’ ground forming a low ridge. The quarry lies immediately on the far side of this ridge and may be best approached at the left hand (W) end. RIGS Yes. Good sizeable exposures of sandstones in the Clun Forest Formation are rare. Pending any better exposure this locality is justified for RIGS status for its clear presentation of the nature of those sandstones. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1356 SO 212 784 Coed-yr-Hendre Quarry (disused) Silurian; Dalamanella lunata beds acc. Earp (1940); equivalent to Cefn Einion Formation of BGS This roadside quarry presents a joint plane trending north with a uniform dip of 15° towards 355 (N). The exposure is clearly separated into a lower and upper part by a disconformity. In the lower part the grey siltstones are hard and flaggy with much sedimentary detail (e.g. pinch & swell) suggesting deposition in an energetic environment perhaps even within the wave base. There are calcareous bands. Most significantly the rock surface carries a distinctive sheen (or polish) only seen once before by this surveyor (n the upper Cefn Einion Formation at Bury Ditches immediately below the Platyschisma Shales). This is consistent with Earp (1940) who maps this quarry close to the same Platyschisma Helicites beds. Further confirmation is found in the abundance of fossils (wholly as casts and dominated by Salopina lunata and pentagonal columnals associated with borings of Salopina shells). Above the plane of disconformity the rock is quite different; seemingly a brown (decalcified?) fine sandstone up to 2 m thick and most remarkably compacted by slumps so that there is development of ‘spherical jointing’. However surface textures confirm the latter origin is as a consequence of slumps. From Llanfair Waterdine take the road heading NW along the valley of the River Teme. After 4 km this turns north and the quarry is to be found just beyond the end of a small plantation on the RHS RIGS Yes. RIGS designation proposed since this as a possibly unique and certainly significant exposure. Good sedimentary structures fossils and slumping phenomena near or at the Ludlow/Pridoli boundary Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1361 SO 228 881 Black Bank (Maesggwyn) Quarry (disused) Silurian; Knucklas Castle Formation (ref 1) The Kerry Ridgeway offers a steep north facing slope down into the Kerry valley and a gentler undulating slope to the south. Here a minor stream has developed a distinct gorge which (although small scale) is sufficiently eroded to have formed near vertical rock walls both in the main channel and a subordinate tributary. The quarry is situated on a south facing slope above the gorge adjacent to the disused quarry. Dip direction is also due south (ca 220°); rock type is a very thin flag and quite suitable for use as roof tiles. Indeed this seems the purpose of the quarry for it is excavated only to a depth of about 2 m. Ref. 1 shows the locality so close to the overlying Cefn Einion beds that it could be considered to lie in a transition zone between the usual thin shales of the Knucklas Castle Formation and the more massive siltstones of Cefn Einion Formation. The approach path also passes two other quarries (referenced) and it is a notable feature that dip direction swings from SW at these to due south at the current locality From Mainstone take the road heading due west which after 3.5 km arrives at a cross-roads. A paved forest track marked as a ‘no through road’ heads WNW and in 2 km there is a large lay-by on the left hand side. Just south of this a usually muddy track heads off south-east passing the two quarries mentioned above on left and right passing through a gate to arrive after a distance of about 700 m. The 1:25000 OS map marks a further quarry at SO 232 881 which could be worth investigating RIGS Yes. RIGS designation because the quarry is likely to have been a source of stone tiles and the development of the gorge section over such a short distance well reveals the Quaternary (?glacial) processes that have been active Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1362 SO 231 881 Unk Gorge (Maesgwyn) Natural exposure Silurian; Cefn Einion Formation (ref 1) Headwaters of River Usk have cut through the underlying rock succession forming a gorge with rock walls. Since the present stream is far too small to have eroded this gorge it is likely that it has a glacial origin. The area south of the Kerry Ridgeway is rich in glacial meltwater channels (marked on the map; Ref. 1) although the gorge itself is not so marked. With a catchment area of about 4 sq.km on the highest part of the Kerry Ridgway (altitude ca. 475 m) the headwaters of the River Unk (which joins the River Clun in Clun itself) have apparently excavated a gorge in a remarkably short distance within 200 to 300 m of the present day stream. The gorge section runs downstream (west to east) from SO 226 881 to SO 232 881 over a distance of 600 m. In shape it has a near vertical south wall typically presented as embayments up to 4 or 5 m high whereas the north side comprises an undulating slope inclined at an angle of about 20° to the south. Adjacent to it on the north side are a number of quarries (4) and rock exposures (all of which show a consistent dip of 20 to 35° between SSW and SW). At its lowest point a 30 by 5 m area of rock slabs (at SO 2314 8811) shows thin bedded and slightly bioturbated beds dipping 35° SSW (220° azimuth) providing a suitable starting point and an explanation for the asymmetric gorge section. It can be seen that bedding planes are resistant to vertical excavation and the eroding stream slides down these planes in a southerly direction. It can far more easily penetrate and remove rock from vertically exposed bedding planes which form the south wall of the gorge. A similar situation exists in the channel of the River Camlad where it traverses Marrington Dingle along  the strike of a dipping rock sequence. Moving upstream from the above point are good views down into the gorge. A rock-walled tributary from the north enters the gorge at SO 231 815 beyond which there is a small quarry and then a second tributary at SO 230 814. Opposite the ‘tile’ quarry (see SO 228 881) a tributary enters from the south. All three tributaries enter the gorge aligned north-south which is the direction of a local major joint system. From the lay-by on the forest road at SO 223 880 take the path heading SE and follow it to a gated compound; pass the ‘tile’ quarry at SO 228 881 then on the right of a fence to arrive at the now visible slabby area opposite the lowest point of the gorge section. It seems reasonable to assume the area of the gorge has open access. RIGS Yes. RIGS designation as a geomorphological (Quaternary glacial) site which also includes some significant (Silurian) stratigraphy Geomorphology/Landscape
1364 SO 233 820 Garn Wood Quarry (disused) Silurian; Cefn Einion Formation Quarry lies on north side of B-road (B4368) and its floor forms a small lay-by. Rock is a clearly bedded siltstone/sandstone sequence variously flaggy and massive. It is slightly calcareous with occasional patches of brownstone suggesting fossil coquina. Size of the main face is some 12 m wide and up to 5 m high. However the principal interest is the dip and evident folding. From right to left there is a steep 45° dip to the right (west) punctuated by a 3 m wide sigmoidal fold in which dip is locally vertical. Ref 1 shows a dip arrow at this locality of only 24° to the WNW. Further (at the extreme left) the dip is seen to ease (becoming only 10° W) suggesting that the quarry lies on the easterly limb of a syncline. Some 150 m west along the B-road is a small cottage behind which are steep vertical quarried faces showing a persistent dip 45° west and a distinctly turbiditic texture. This could imply that between quarry and cottage is a now eroded anticline. Irrespective of such speculation the quarry and cottage exposures are considered illustrative of the nature and scale of folding within the zone of the Clun Forest Disturbance Quarry affords a lay-by on the north side of the B4368 going west from the village of Newcastle and is found in the first large area of trees some 1.6 km (1 mile) west of Newcastle. RIGS Yes. RIGS designation for its demonstration of folding and inference of a syncline/anticline relation. Structure and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1365 SO 235 801 Hill House (SSW) Quarry (disused) Silurian; Cefn Einion Formation Locality lies on the SE flank of a N-S ridge called Hurgin on the base map of Ref 1. A complementary exposure (somewhat higher in the sequence) lies on the NW flank at SO 233 808 Quarry presents faces up to 4 m high in a number of sections totalling some 50 m. Bedding is near horizontal and is variously thin bedded and massive; siltstones and fine grey sandstones. Some sedimentary detail is evident. The floor of the quarry undulates but is in the main grass-covered so there is little talus. Most significant is that this exposure is mapped (Ref 1) as lying just above the Knucklas Castle Formation which implies some degree of transitional character. The finding of a cephalopod cast would seem to confirm lower Cefn Einion Formation. It is also noted that the site with its tectonically undisturbed bedding lies just to the SE of the Clun Forest Disturbance zone; nearest exposures of which are at Garn Wood and possibly on Dowke Hill. Nearest sizeable village is Newcastle from where one would take lanes heading south to Llanfair Waterdine. Hill House is 500 m south of cross-roads at Stoney Pound; the quarry site is a further 400 m on a bend trending SW. A short path on the north side of the road at this point leads immediately to the quarry RIGS Yes. RIGS designation for its demonstration of stratigraphy and tectonic disturbance Structure and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1366 SO 240 778 Bwlch to Cwm-cold Quarry (disused) Silurian; ?Bailey Hill Formation This locality comprises a 300 m long  E-W section in which observations of dip reveal strong folding into a synclinal and anticlinal form. This description starts at the most eastern of the cottages at Cwm-cold (SO 243 778) where a quarry is visible to the north beyond some outbuildings. Apparent dip is some 50° west; real dip is probably to NW at a value exceeding 50°. Proceeding west along the access lane to these cottages: (a) after 70 m two exposures on the left (one near the lane the other a higher quarry) where dip is now 30° but to the east; (b) after a further 40 m a second quarry shows apparent dip 45 to 55° also to the east; (c) at the top of the lane (ca. 250 m from the cottages) and behind old buildings on the right is exposed highly distorted strata associated with a fault; (d) just beyond is a small knoll showing horizontally bedded rock; (e) finally (at Bwlch) as the lane begins to descend there is a quarried area on the right in which general dip is now 10° NW although there are sigmoidal distortions containing segments of higher dip. Rock here is finely bedded blocky siltstone with some lamination. Excellent kink bands are developed in these thinly laminated mudstones. The occurrence here of such folding is consistent with the main expression of the Clun Forest Disturbance described by Woodcock (1984) for this local area to the north-west of Knighton. Bwlch lies about 1 mile north of Llanfair Waterdine on the road heading north to Newcastle. The lane to the cottages at Cwm-cold branches off to the right or can be reached via a footpath through trees on the right hand side RIGS Yes. RIGS designation for its demonstration of tectonic disturbance (syncline/anticline) in relation to the Clun Forest Disturbance Structure and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1367 SO 252 842 Rhespass Temporary excavation Silurian; Bailey Hill Formation A confined valley with stream giving a view NW; very suggestive of a long approach to a col or pass This locality comprises a 300 m long  E-W section in which the excavation on the north side of a bridleway just short of some farm buildings is a fantastic section through what can only be described as a ‘crumple zone’. The exposure comprises a single 8 m high face extending without interruption for 50 m. At the right hand end is a sequence of strong folds (anticline and syncline) with near vertical limbs and sharp fold hinges on a 3 to 5 m scale. This pattern of distortion continues all the way to the left with the central part partly hidden by vegetation. At the extreme left hand end is a structure strongly suggestive of a thrust where a low angled plane of disturbance appears to ride over and drag the top of a relatively undisturbed low buttress. That the excavation presents the response to extreme compression is the obvious explanation. The locality lies some 1 km NW of the vertical dips of Graig Hill but nevertheless would seem to lie within the zone of the Clun Forest Disturbance. From Bridge Farm at SO 259 840 an initially straight bridleway leads just north of west to reach the excavation after 650 m. This bridleway continues along the valley outlined under Geomorphology RIGS Yes. RIGS designation for its demonstration of tectonic disturbance in relation to the Clun Forest Disturbance Structure and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1369 SO 255 872 Churchtown Hill Mainstone Quarry (disused) Silurian; Bailey Hill Formation Steep hillside with outstanding ridge exposing rock and adjacent hollow This locality embraces a quarry section and at least 3 large natural exposures. Of most interest are tectonic features with large dip angles and strong faulting possibly demonstrating fault drag. A detailed ground survey was carried out on a second visit - copy attached. This confirmed that locally there is a consistent dip direction to the SW with value of 45-55°. Such values are common in nearby exposures (e.g. quarries in Mainstone) and are assumed to be due to large scale folds within the zone of the Mainstone fault and/or the Clun Forest Disturbance. The natural exposures and the quarry show mainly planar laminated dark grey siltstones and fine sandstones typical of Bailey Hill Formation. Within the quarry the apparent dip in the east-west aligned face changes swiftly from 45° to 80° near the fault which is exposed at the western end of the face. There are major bedding contortions within this fault (see sketch) which are here interpreted as due to fault drag effects on the assumption that the fault downthrows on its western side From Mainstone take road heading due west. A quarry with lay-by occurs in a re-entrant after 2 km RIGS Yes. RIGS designation for its demonstration of fault drag; but expert second opinion is sought to compare with other possibly similar exposures in the vicinty Structure and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1374 SJ 653 418 Coxbank Quarry (disused) Jurassic; Lower Lias A small stream is running over bedrock which lies some 15 m below till cover within which there has been a small quarry trial. Exposure show 3 m height of grey to dark grey blocky and shaly silty claystone. A large clam was found and there is clear scope for more fossils. Many stream-bed and stream-bank repetitions found in River Duckow for 3 km southwards. Note added by MA: The BGS Nantwich Memoir (Poole E.G. & Whiteman (1966)) records several exposures of soft blue-grey mudstone containing a sufficiency of fossils to confirm a detailed zonation of the Lower Lias. Grid References of these exposures indicate localities close to this one. Near road and tracks; below farm on hill plateau above. RIGS Yes. Designation because this is the only known Lias exposure within the Shropshire-Cheshire basin. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1375 SJ 626 167 Longswood Farm - Crudgington Quarry (disused) The Hillock is Triassic; Sherwood Sandstone Group; Kidderminster Formation (pebble beds); The surrounding ‘plain’ is Permian; Bridgnorth (Lower Mottled) Sandstone ref. 1 (Solid Edition); This unconformity is regionally taken as the Permian/Triassic boundary The hillock of height 25 m above the surrounding plain would seem to represent a relic of Kidderminster Formation Pebble Beds overlying an alluvium covered plain of Bridgnorth Dune Sandstone. The quarry face is 80 m long east to west and up to 10 m high.  Dip is 7° west.  It looks over a small bend in the course of the River Tern the opposite bank of which is vegetated. Exposed rock is a ‘big river’ cross-bedded sandstone; only locally pebbly in lower half.  There are some darker siltier lenses and greenish bed parallel streaks (these could be interfingered aeolian dune sandstone from underlying beds). There is a splendid set of about 10 swell faulted joints dipping 65° to east giving an antipathetic joint set (see sketch). The site is adjacent to a public footpath which runs between the Weald Moors on the A442 and Longdon on Tern on the B5063.  Both roads run north from Shawbirch. Note that the site is used for motor-cycle scrambling. RIGS Yes. Designation because shows both tectonic & sedimentary features. Structure and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1376 SJ 365 087 Quarry Woods Quarry (disused) Carboniferous; Upper Coal Measures; Westphalian C; Coed yr Allt Beds (by extrapolation from Shrewsbury Sheet; ref 1) Sandstones form a wooded ridge orientated NW to SE The quarry presents an 8 m high section extending along 60 m long faces.  This is divided by an apparent erosion surface. The lower half is of massive mega-rippled sandstone showing conspicuous ‘onion skin’ weathering. The upper half is cross-bedded and conglomerate channelled sandstone and includes coal flecks and pyrite clasts. The woods lie on the NE side of the B4387 road from Minsterly to Westbury some 1 km short of the latter place.  Possible to walk in from the road. RIGS Yes. Designation because this is an exemplary exposure of Coed yr Allt Beds Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1377 SO 802 951 Upper Ludstone Cutting (road/railway) Triassic; Keuper Series; Lower Keuper sandstone; Sherwood Sandstone Road Cut in new by-pass on B4176 road to Dudley ascends a west facing scarp in which rocks dip moderately (10 degrees) to east. On north side of cut exposure is long and clean and access is safe but somewhat noisy from passing traffic. Because of the easterly dip the strata forms terraces up the bank and a total thickness of about 25 metres is exposed.  It comprises all grades from siltstone up to pebbly sandstones (generally strong) of a purple colour and clearly indicative of deposition in a range of energetic environments. There are small faults lithic calcareous intraclasts and exotic pebbles with varied diagenetic colours and cements. There is parking in a gateway at the foot of the bank on the north side; it is only a short distance to a large and prominent road house. RIGS Yes. Designation because this is as an exemplary exposure in the Sherwood Sandstone Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1378 SJ 551 138 The Criftin Quarry (disused) Precambrian; Longmyndian; Stretton Group undivided of Haughmond Hill Lies on shoulder or flank of the horst-like feature of Haughmond Hill Exposures show steeply folded slaty (cleaved) wackes in 5 mm graded couplets of graded claystone on fine sandstone.  These are generally ‘right way up’.  Presumed bentonite layers are common. There is one reverse-graded volcaniclastic bed.  Similar exposures occur around the Criftin 100 m to the south. From Upton Magna take road heading north towards Haughmond Hill.  There is easy access to the quarry on the left hand side after 1 km.  However the quarry is private with some connection to the Criftin passed en route.  Here the owner is friendly and knowledgeable so to also seek access permission here beforehand is advised. RIGS Yes. Designation because this is a very relevant exposure of the Precambrian Stretton Group Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1379 SJ 596 275 Hopley Farm Quarry (disused) Triassic; Scythian; Sherwood Sandstone Group; Wilmslow Sandstone Formation Quarry excavated in slope of hill-plateau capped by Grinshill Sandstone A 9 m face is still preserved in this large old quarry and almost all the strata are accessible.  This is mostly a red silty thin bed or a thicker bedded claystone with also some pale greenish siltstone visible.  No pebbles are to be seen.  Possible minor faults to the east emphasise the jointing - a north to south fault lies immediately adjacent according to ref. 1. The quarry is said to have been used as a source for brick making. On the A53 2 km SW of Hodnet a track leads NW past Hopton Farm into the Hodnet Estate and leads into open woodland towards Hopley Farm RIGS Yes. Designation because the Wilmslow Sandstone Formation is a rarely exposed unit Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1380 SJ 644 211 Great Bolas (W) Natural exposure Triassic: Bunter Series; Lower Mottled Sandstone; Kidderminster (or Chester) Pebble Beds lying on Bridgnorth (Dune) Sandstones (alt.Helsby Sst.) in valley edge; an extremely convoluted erosive contact.in quarried bluff edge of River Tern alluvium Exposure is 300 m long scar up to 5 m high (strike section near horizontal) showing pebbly sandstones with conglomerate channel basal scours on dune-bedded sandstones. Bank of River Tern has public footpath which can be reached by path from Cold Hatton to west on A442 or to east from bridge over River Meece south of Great Bolas. RIGS Yes. Designation because shows channel basal scours. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1381 SO 234 931 West Penyllan Quarry (disused) Silurian; Wenlock Series; Nantglyn Mudstones Formation; Gyfenni Wood Shales Member (ref 1) Quarry excavated in south facing hillside which is perhaps steepened by a palaeovalley cut. Quarry exposes some 8 metres of thin bedded shaly siltstones with some 100 mm thick shale partings.  Dip is 5° SW according to ref 1.  There are a few calcareous septarian nodules. The Gyfenni Wood Shales are described as hemipelagite (a dark grey silty laminate) (Cave Hains & White in ref. 2 page 87) forming a background deposit during Wenlock and early Ludlow times; fossils are pelagic notably graptolites & orthocones. Monograptids are plentiful at this locality. Quarry lies on the north side of the A489 Churchstoke to Kerry road some 4 km from Churchstoke. RIGS Yes. Designation because this is as a good example of the Silurian Gyfenni Member and the only Shropshire locality for this unit Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1382 SJ 391 023 Lower Vesson Track/roadside Ordovician; Tremadoc Series; Habberley Shale Formation  (refs. 1 & 2); note that no intrusions are marked on ref. 1 at this locality Exposures (extending for about 30 m) show steeply cleaved micaceous silty claystones; a dark diorite showing pyrite is intruded; this weathers to a brown sandstone like texture. The shale at the contact is altered to a pale hornfels and is spotted to resemble a pellet grainstone. More hornfels variety could be revealed by clearing and excavating. A quartz vein is also present. Overall the outcrop probably extends for about 100 m along the track which is part of a mountain bike circuit. From Snailbeach Mine a road leads east up the valley to Upper Vessons farm & church from whence good public tracks and Forestry biking trails continue eastwards to Lower Vessons. The site is approx. 300 m NNW of Lower Vessons. RIGS Yes. Designation proposed as a site showing thermal metamorphism of fine grained sediments Mineralogy/Petrology
1383 SJ 520 124 River Severn (Monkmoor) Stream/brook Carboniferous; Upper Coal Measures (Westphalian C); Ruabon Marl  Natural crags and river bed shoals best seen at low water About a 20 m length of section is exposed where the river runs north to south. This lies on the outside of a river bend and lies mainly in the river bed extending about one half river width. It is therefore best examined at times of low water levels. Upstream is a modest dip to the north. At south end of section are some 7 m of clays; variously purple to blotchy green. Scarce pieces of conglomerate; intraclasts; calcareous or dolomitic; and ‘stirred’ sandy lenses are occasionally exposed by landslips off the bank. The middle 10 m show fine sandstones with ripples and erosive bases and sub-equal redder siltstones. The top 3 m comprise siltstone sandstone and breccia lenses. There may be sandstones under the bridge piers. From the suburb of Monkmoor there are various ways to reach the west bank of the River Severn and walk downstream along public footpath to the railway bridge. The river bed rocks are below the Railway Bridge. This locality should not require any particular permissions to visit. RIGS Yes. Designation proposed as a rare example of a locality showing detailed lithology of the Ruabon Marl Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1384 SO 538 734 Poughnhill (Tinker’s Hill/Caynham Camp) Quarry (disused) Silurian; Ludlow Series; Whitcliffe Formation Pronounced ridge due to faults bringing harder rock to the surface Near Bradnor Hill (Kington) the Leinthall Earles Fault branches east from the Church Stretton Fault System and runs east of north-east to Titterstone Clee and beyond. Its downthrow to the north-west is consistent with the throw of the Church Stretton fault but at Overton a second branch is formed which downthrows to the south-east (BGS 2000). As a result a horst-like feature is developed in the sense of Park (1997; fig. 2.8). This throws up a long narrow outcrop of Ludlovian and early Pridoli rocks through the cover of Raglan Mudstone so forming a 4 km ridge south-west to north-east from Tinker’s Hill to Caynham Camp. Beyond Caynham the outcrop is abruptly terminated by a cross fault downthrowing to the north-east. The Ledwyche Brook cuts through this ridge and appears to be a misfit stream within the current valley and probably hosted the River Corve prior to capture by the Teme in the late stages of the Devensian. The quarry at this site (opened on the western side of the gap) was for building stone. It exploited the outcrop of Whitcliffe Formation and was of considerable size; the main face is some 200 m long. All of this is now degraded and vegetated save for one pillar like section 6 m high and 8 m wide which reveals clean rock. This section offers an alternating sequence of smooth faced decalcified siltstone up to 100 mm thick and rough surfaced finer grained siltstones up to 300 mm thick; there are occasional partings less than 10 mm thick. There is much sedimentary detail including laminations and minor erosion surfaces. The sequence resembles the Upper Whitcliffe Beds in the dingle above the Whitcliffe type section (SO 509 741). Fossils are assessed as being common; one obvious bedding plane showed Salopina lunata and Protochonetes ludloviensis inside the smooth faced facies. The walk (east) up to Caynham Camp is instructive for the views and appreciation of the context of the Ridge in relation to the anticline beneath Mortimer Forest. Exit Ludlow via the Sheet Road; continue straight over the A49 bypass and through the village of Sheet. The road next enters a short defile where parking is most convenient (opposite a waterfall over a weir in the Ledwyche Brook on the left-hand side). On the opposite side a footpath sign indicates a direction over the ivy-covered quarry floor towards the quarry section. The quarried area is crossed by a public footpath which gives adequate access. The walk (east) up to Caynham Camp is instructive for the views and appreciation of the context of the Ridge in relation to the anticline beneath Mortimer Forest. RIGS Yes. Designation proposed primarily for its illustration of the geomorphology of a ridge developed as a consequence of a splay fault (part of the Church Stretton fault system). The Ledwyche Brook appears to be a misfit stream within the current valley and probably hosted the River Corve prior to its capture by the Teme in the late stages of the Devensian. The similarity of the visible exposure to the Whitcliffe at Ludlow is also of interest. Geomorphology/Landscape
1396 SO 468 955 Hough's Coppice Track/roadside Silurian;  Wenlock Limestone Formation;  Tickwood Beds (as a member) Hillside below westerly flank of Caer Caradoc and showing slope angle determined by underlying lithology From the A49 lay-by the public footpath ascends an open grassland field underlain by Wenlock Shales.  The map of Ref. 1 is in error here since it shows Lower Ludlow Shales.  Above is a steeper slope carrying a heavy tree cover and known as Hough’s Coppice.  As the footpath enters this woodland a drainage ditch contains examples of well rounded cobbles of fluvioglacial material which occurs on the sides of the Church Stretton Valley at this elevation.  The footpath climbs through the coppice at a slant; in a vertical direction the woodland is 55 m wide but the footpath takes 135 m to reach the gate at the uppermost edge.  From the lower entrance at the change of slope there is a rock exposure on the right-hand side but it is 40 m to the first clear exposure.  Here a section one m high shows a compact sequence of poorly bedded grey calcareous shales up to 100 mm thick with harder irregular flaggy muddy grey limestone bands from 50 to 80 mm thick.  This lithology is characteristic of Tickwood Beds (which occur as a horizon immediately below the Wenlock Limestone itself).  Dip here was measured as 30 degrees to a 120 azimuth (SE).  The strike direction cuts across the flanks of the hillside only a little steeper than the line of the footpath.  As a result only a relatively thin section of beds is thereby exposed.  In a further 20 m a second exposure shows the harder beds much thicker (up to 60 mm) and of a more massive nature.  Thin shales are exposed under the roots of an adjacent tree.  It is a further 70 m to the upper gate and the limestone is now slightly more nodular but very short of the usual nodular character found in the Wenlock Limestone proper.  Beyond the gate are again open fields with slope angles reverting to those of the lower field but underlain by Lower Ludlow Shales (Eltonian).  A stream defines the left-hand side of these fields but has provided no useful exposure; it is dominated by Uriconian rhyolites etc. derived from Caer Caradoc.  The BGS sheet (Ref 1) shows an outcrop width of 200 m and places the upper boundary of the Wenlock Limestone outcrop well up these fields where it is succeeded again by Wenlock Shales.  There is nothing to suggest the presence of the actual Wenlock Limestone here. 2 km north of the traffic lights on the A49 at Church Stretton is a lay-by on the right-hand (east) side.  From here a signed footpath crosses the field towards woodland with Caer Caradoc clearly visible above. RIGS Yes. Designation proposed as the largest and most accessible outcrop of Wenlock Limestone "shelf" facies in close proximity to and immediately west of the F1 component of the Church Stretton Fault Structure and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1397 SO 354 952 Ridge (SW) Quarry (active) Precambrian;  Wentnor Group;  Bayston-Oakswood Formation Shallow re-entrant on western flank of elevated Precambrian landscape of Norbury and Linley hills.  Overlooks to the NW the deep valley of the Pontesford-Linley fault separating the Precambrian from the Ordovician Stiperstones. This new quarry in the purple sandstones of the Bayston-Oakswood Formation would appear to offer the best evidence for strata inversion (see survey report for Nurton SO 353 936).  The quarry section is semicircular in section with a diameter of some 15 m.  It lies on the crest of a low ridge and the height of the face varies from about 4 m in the centre to zero at the extremities.  Dips are constant and consistent at around 20 degrees to the west.  The quarry presents some 5 to 6 beds of massive flat jointed purple sandstone up to one metre thick.  These are separated by beds of dark purple friable material which varies from sandstone with same grain size as the massive beds through finer sandstone to distinct mudstone (at the right hand end).  Such a lithology offers a number of indicators for inversion.  Specifically these include: (1) a detectable grading in the thinner sandstones but a grading in both senses (up and down); (2) possible incipient load casts on the upper surface of the massive sandstones but unconvincing since this may be associated with the jointing - the "casts" form as shallow convex surfaces on the top surface between the orthogonal joint planes; (3) pick-up clasts of purple mudstone are seen near the base of some sandstones but equally such clasts can occur near the top; (4) cross-bedding would seem likely in these coarse grain sediments but no evidence was found by the surveyor. Easiest approach is from the hamlet of Cold Harbour (signposted from the B4383 1.5 km south of Bridges).  Take the minor road south towards Linley and the quarry will be seen on the hillside above the first cattle grid (where parking can be had); distance about 2 km.  Alternatively take this same minor road north from Linley where it is signposted to Cold Harbour.  The cattle grid is the second one (distance about 3 km). RIGS Yes. Designation proposed as a somewhat unusual sandstone/siltstone/mudstone sequence and the best candidate for demonstrating inversion of the B-O Formation. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1398 SO 331 971 Mucklewick Hill Summit Natural exposure Ordovician; Llandeilo;  Hope Shale Formation; Hyssington Volcanic Member Highest point among ridges of hard volcanic rocks The local rocks are those of the Hyssington Volcanics which are interbedded within the Hope Shales and have a strong sedimentary character.  This can be seen on the east flank of the hill where a steeply dipping bedding surface is exposed comprising grey volcaniclastics that also comprise the abundant talus that surrounds the summit (372 m AOD).  However these are better examined elsewhere and it is the view that is the principal feature and can be summarized in three parts: (1) The most immediate feature is the ridge from Grit Hill to the NE some 3 km to the SW.  Like other examples within the Shelve Inlier such hard rock ridges often show the offsets caused by transverse (SE to NE) normal faults. (2) At the next level is the local topography which is dominated by the two zones of lower ground of Hope Shales. To the SE is the axis of the Llan Syncline between here and the tree covered high ground of Brooks Hill (itself essentially the same Hyssington Volcanics as Mucklewick).  To the west is the complementary Shelve Anticline with an axis between here and the dominant Corndon Hill.  To the right (NW) can be seen the ridge of Stapeley Hill (itself a second volcanic sequence with the Hope Shales higher up the sequence than the Hyssington Volcanics and of a much more basic character). (3) Finally on a wider 360 degree panorama is the consequence of hard and soft rock sequence within the regional geology.  To the NNE is the high point of Myton Dingle and the quartzite tors of the Stiperstones ridge extending south to a termination on Black Rhadley Hill.  Again to the south and going behind Corndon Hill are 5 hills in a line shaped in terms of scarp and dip by their underlying sediments and volcanics.  North of Corndon is the Stapeley Ridge continuing round to high ground occupied by the Silurian of Venus Bank and then finally the distinct marker of the tree cluster of Bromlow Callow. Mucklewick Hill can be approached by numerous walking routes using the network of local paths.  These intersect the road network at places such as: Shelve; The Bog; Nind; and the Grit mines on the A488. RIGS Yes. Designation proposed a splendid panorama of the local geological structure and stratigraphy Structure and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1399 SO 328 966 Mucklewick Hill (SW) Quarry (active) Ordovician; Llandeilo;  Hope Shale Formation; Hyssington Volcanic Member Quarry is situated on the SE facing flank of a NE trending ridge of volcanic rocks To quote from the BGS Memoir for the Montgomery Sheet "the Hyssington Volcanics are made up of principally acid vitroclastic crystal and lithic tuffs laminated tuffites and associated volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks interbedded with the mudstones of the Hope Shales" (Ref. 2 page 19).  The single main face of the quarry is some 40 m long and up to 6 m high and presents bedding planes which dip 45 degrees to the SE.  These planes are mainly of the Hope Shales of dark grey mudstone variously blocky or fissile.  The shales are interbedded with a variety of volcanics the extraction of which is the purpose of the quarry.  At either end of the main face are dip sections which show the interbedding in terms of the thickness of the individual units.  There is a marked difference between these two sections which suggests that the quarry face is not exactly cut along the strike.  The quarry contains abundant talus examination of which quickly confirms the wide range of rock types represented in the Hyssington Volcanics.  The Hope Shales show some variations.  Some examples show a hardening of the original mudstone giving a more fissile character that suggests some localized heating.  There are also some good examples of the concentric diffusion patterns (Leisegang rings (?)) implying processes whereby components of the volcanics have interpenetrated the shales.  There is a host of different volcanic rock types ranging in terms of particle size from finely laminated to heterogeneous grits with differences of hardness colour and so on.  The dip section at the right hand end of the quarry (NE) is roughly 8 m wide and shows within that distance at least 8 bands of shale (none thicker than 200 mm).  The interbedded volcanics vary in thickness by a factor of 100 (from 50 mm to 5 m).  Contacts with underlying shales are sharp with slight load casting and shale distortion evident.  This section provides an excellent opportunity for a very detailed examination; stratigraphic logging would be appropriate.  The section at the left hand end is in sharp contrast.  Some 10 m wide it is of massive grey crystallinity with some fining upwards but impressing mainly with the perfectly flat orthogonal joint faces.  Its sedimentary nature is deduced from the base which rests on the bedding plane of underlying shales with an additional thin (<10 mm) shale horizon some 100 mm above the base.  The crest of the ridge above the quarry shows numerous natural outcrops aligned in a NE direction but then is abruptly terminated.  From the BGS map of Ref. 1 it appears that a transverse fault down-throwing to the north has offset the outcrop to the left (NW) where it continues as a less conspicuous feature.  A strong ridge now appears to the right (SW) representing a different "unit" within the Hyssington Volcanics. The area of Mucklewick Hill is well endowed with footpaths.  By vehicle from the A488 take the turn east signposted to Nind.  After 1 km turn left at the T-junction signed as a no through road.  A lay-by will be encountered on the right-hand side opposite the second of two sets of farm buildings.  Continue by walking further along the lane and take the first track branching to the left.  This leads directly to the quarry which shortly becomes visible.  Note the numerous examples of volcanics which occur in the track surface.  Alternatives are directly by footpath from the point at SO 324 961 on the A488 distance 0.5 km or by footpaths from Shelve via Grit Hill and Shelve Pool; distance about 2 km. RIGS Yes. Designation proposed as a splendid demonstration of the Hyssington Volcanics - acid vitroclastic crystal and lithic tuffs; laminated tuffites and associated volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks interbedded with the mudstones of the Hope Shales Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1400 SO 449 943 Cardingmill Valley (Church Stretton) Quarry (disused) Precambrian;  Longmyndian;  Burway Formation Situated near exit from Cardingmill Valley; one of a number of steep sided non-glaciated "batches" which drain the SE flank of the Longmynd It was Susan Beale (previously Secretary of the SGS) who first observed a number of thin orange seams lying along the bedding planes of this quarry.  She considered them to be the result of contemporaneous ash falls but (whilst they may be of volcanic origin) an ash fall has not been confirmed by subsequent observations.  The quarry on the NE side of the valley was excavated in the turbidite sequence of the Burway Formation – previously known as the Burway Flags.  It presents a face of about 5 m height aligned roughly in the dip plane and at right angles to the strike.  Younging direction is from right to left.  Some six orange seams are clearly visible each one lying upon the planar shale component of the turbidite units and overlain by the similar planar basal fine sandstone or siltstone unit.  The seams were therefore deposited in the intervals between turbidite flows.  The seams are typically of thickness between 10 and 30 mm.  Spacing between the seams is irregular.  From right to left in the younging direction: Thickness/Spacing: 20-30 mm / 1.16 m; 15 mm / 0.28 m; 10 mm / 4.17 m; 10 mm / 0.52 m; 2 of ca. 10 mm / 0.61 m; 10 mm / 1.22 m; ca. 10 mm.  The discovery of around 5 similar seams in the Batch Valley at approximately the same horizon (some 100 m above the base of the Burway Formation turbidites) prompted a search to establish their lateral extent.  Going south they have been found also in similar numbers: in Cwmdale on Novers Hill; in Townbrook Hollow as two seams; and in Ashes Hollow as one seam.  They have not been found north or south of these two limits.  Separation distances between the individual bands differ so much at each of the above places as to prevent any correlation.  What all the seams have in common are sedimentological effects.  The seams have a lamination which resembles that in certain mudstones such as that of the Stretton Shales.  A thin section indicates a clay mineral composition with some amounts of secondary quartz mineralisation.  Bases of the seams can be perfectly flat but more usually show undulations which vary from fine to unequivocal load casts simply indicating the degree of diagenetic hardening of the underlying turbidite shale when the seam was emplaced.  Traced upwards the seams show a gradational texture involving an often present purple band 1 to 2 mm thick succeeded by fine laminations showing that the full thickness of the seam is greater than that of the orange colouration  In at least two cases it has been noticed that this full seam can suffer slumping producing short wavelength folds of up to 10 mm amplitude. Cardingmill Valley is signposted from Church Stretton and the quarry is on the right-hand side 50 m past the first cattle grid RIGS Yes. Designation proposed as the type section of ?volcanic seams deposited in the intervals between turbidite flows Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1401 SO 257 888 Dolfawr (Lower & Middle) Quarry (disused) Silurian;  Ludlow Series;  Bailey Hill Formation Exposures lie mainly on valley sides of the River Unk immediately downstream of a river capture which changes its course from SE to NW and from along strike to across strike. The identifying grid reference SOI251887 is placed adjacent to Lower Dolfawr Farm.  Exposures are alongside public footpaths and show some degree of disturbance as folding and thrusting which are presumed to arise from compressive forces (stress) associated with the Clun Forest Disturbance – see Woodcock (1984).  It is the view of the surveyor that the exposures (1401-1407) are illustrative of this effect and all link together as a single unit – albeit of appreciable scale; the most separated exposures are 1.25 km apart.  As such they warrant some particular examination going well beyond what can be presented in this report; here the concern is only with the location and outline description of each exposure. SO 257 888 extends westwards from a gateway down the slope of a track.  At the start is a continuous section 2 m high of undisturbed Bailey Hill Beds showing shallow dip and the characteristic fine sandstone and siltstone couplets.  The distinguishing graptolite Saetograptus was found here.  After 20 m of exposure these beds suddenly abut against highly disturbed strata of the same Bailey Hill Formation with near vertical dip at 80 degrees west.  The zone of demarcation appears to be a fault although it has produced very little in the way of drag effects.  The near vertical strata then continue westwards for 20 m.  The main variations are dip angles sometimes down to 60 degrees and some bending of the strata.  Observation of grading and slight load casting of the sandstone units suggests the whole width of this outcrop youngs to the west. Access to Dolfawr is by public footpaths of which there are various options.  The most dramatic is that following the River Unk from the near the plantation as point 475 near which there is abundant parking.  Other routes are: south from Pantglas (some parking); NW from Edenhope (verge parking only); and east from Upper Edenhope. RIGS Yes. Designation proposed as these are textbook quality exposures of folding and thrusts belonging to the Clun Forest Disturbance Structure and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1402 SO 247 887 Dolfawr (Lower & Middle) Quarry (disused) Silurian;  Ludlow Series;  Bailey Hill Formation Exposures lie mainly on valley sides of the River Unk immediately downstream of a river capture which changes its course from SE to NW and from along strike to across strike. The identifying grid reference SOI251887 is placed adjacent to Lower Dolfawr Farm.  Exposures are alongside public footpaths and show some degree of disturbance as folding and thrusting which are presumed to arise from compressive forces (stress) associated with the Clun Forest Disturbance – see Woodcock (1984).  It is the view of the surveyor that the exposures (1401-1407) are illustrative of this effect and all link together as a single unit – albeit of appreciable scale; the most separated exposures are 1.25 km apart.  As such they warrant some particular examination going well beyond what can be presented in this report; here the concern is only with the location and outline description of each exposure. SO 247 887 shows a section of length 100 m which extends from a gate south-eastwards down the track.  It is dominated by near vertical strata with some local curvature suggesting involvement of folding.  The section also includes an old quarry which (like all the trackside exposures) has come about as a result of the local farmer(s) excavating the side bank for hardcore. Access to Dolfawr is by public footpaths of which there are various options.  The most dramatic is that following the River Unk from the near the plantation as point 475 near which there is abundant parking.  Other routes are: south from Pantglas (some parking); NW from Edenhope (verge parking only); and east from Upper Edenhope. RIGS Yes. Designation proposed as these are textbook quality exposures of folding and thrusts belonging to the Clun Forest Disturbance Structure and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1403 SO 250 886 Dolfawr (Lower & Middle) Quarry (disused) Silurian;  Ludlow Series;  Bailey Hill Formation Exposures lie mainly on valley sides of the River Unk immediately downstream of a river capture which changes its course from SE to NW and from along strike to across strike. The identifying grid reference SOI251887 is placed adjacent to Lower Dolfawr Farm.  Exposures are alongside public footpaths and show some degree of disturbance as folding and thrusting which are presumed to arise from compressive forces (stress) associated with the Clun Forest Disturbance – see Woodcock (1984).  It is the view of the surveyor that the exposures (1401-1407) are illustrative of this effect and all link together as a single unit – albeit of appreciable scale; the most separated exposures are 1.25 km apart.  As such they warrant some particular examination going well beyond what can be presented in this report; here the concern is only with the location and outline description of each exposure. SO 250 886 is another long exposure which mixes elements of verticality folding and thrusting in quite a dramatic manner.  The strata retain a recognizable Bailey Hill beds texture of sandstone/siltstone couplets. Access to Dolfawr is by public footpaths of which there are various options.  The most dramatic is that following the River Unk from the near the plantation as point 475 near which there is abundant parking.  Other routes are: south from Pantglas (some parking); NW from Edenhope (verge parking only); and east from Upper Edenhope. RIGS Yes. Designation proposed as these are textbook quality exposures of folding and thrusts belonging to the Clun Forest Disturbance Structure and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1404 SO 245 885 Dolfawr (Lower & Middle) Quarry (disused) Silurian;  Ludlow Series;  Bailey Hill Formation Exposures lie mainly on valley sides of the River Unk immediately downstream of a river capture which changes its course from SE to NW and from along strike to across strike. The identifying grid reference SOI251887 is placed adjacent to Lower Dolfawr Farm.  Exposures are alongside public footpaths and show some degree of disturbance as folding and thrusting which are presumed to arise from compressive forces (stress) associated with the Clun Forest Disturbance – see Woodcock (1984).  It is the view of the surveyor that the exposures (1401-1407) are illustrative of this effect and all link together as a single unit – albeit of appreciable scale; the most separated exposures are 1.25 km apart.  As such they warrant some particular examination going well beyond what can be presented in this report; here the concern is only with the location and outline description of each exposure. SO 245 885 is the exemplar of the set.  It is an unusual excavation of the two outer sides of a small hillock or ridge giving two outward faces at 90 degrees to each other and each some 20 to 25 m long and up to 4 m high.  The westward face shows a range of exquisite folds which can be seen to develop from fairly low dip ground to the left.  At the right these folds merge into unequivocal thrusting and around the corner on the south face are the edges of the thrusted beds all dipping inward at about 30 degrees. Access to Dolfawr is by public footpaths of which there are various options.  The most dramatic is that following the River Unk from the near the plantation as point 475 near which there is abundant parking.  Other routes are: south from Pantglas (some parking); NW from Edenhope (verge parking only); and east from Upper Edenhope. RIGS Yes. Designation proposed as these are textbook quality exposures of folding and thrusts belonging to the Clun Forest Disturbance Structure and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1405 SO 243 881 Dolfawr (Lower & Middle) Quarry (disused) Silurian;  Ludlow Series;  Bailey Hill Formation Exposures lie mainly on valley sides of the River Unk immediately downstream of a river capture which changes its course from SE to NW and from along strike to across strike. The identifying grid reference SOI251887 is placed adjacent to Lower Dolfawr Farm.  Exposures are alongside public footpaths and show some degree of disturbance as folding and thrusting which are presumed to arise from compressive forces (stress) associated with the Clun Forest Disturbance – see Woodcock (1984).  It is the view of the surveyor that the exposures (1401-1407) are illustrative of this effect and all link together as a single unit – albeit of appreciable scale; the most separated exposures are 1.25 km apart.  As such they warrant some particular examination going well beyond what can be presented in this report; here the concern is only with the location and outline description of each exposure. At SO 243 881 the river meanders have cut into the steep south bank causing slippage of soil and revealing bedrock as a slightly curved steeply dipping face with an indeterminate discontinuity higher up.  It is considered here that this locality lies at the edge of the general disturbance since no other aberrant exposure have been found upstream of here. Access to Dolfawr is by public footpaths of which there are various options.  The most dramatic is that following the River Unk from the near the plantation as point 475 near which there is abundant parking.  Other routes are: south from Pantglas (some parking); NW from Edenhope (verge parking only); and east from Upper Edenhope. RIGS Yes. Designation proposed as these are textbook quality exposures of folding and thrusts belonging to the Clun Forest Disturbance Structure and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1406 SO 513 755 Ludlow (Fishmore Road Quarry) Quarry (disused) Silurian; Pridoli Series; Downtonian Stage On western edge of locally high ground overlooking flood plains of rivers Corve and Teme Quarry presents a 36 m long face orientated SE to NW and of a uniform height of 6 m.  The upper 4 m slope at about 40 degrees and comprise a red silty mudstone;  the bottom 2 m consist of the granular weathered products of this mudstone forming an apron which lies at an angle of about 30 degrees.  This weathered material (angular and of a 1 to 2 mm size) appears to derive from a process of small scale spheroidal weathering since samples extracted from the in situ rock show rounded surfaces.  Bedding can be discerned in the upper part.  This seems to be horizontal but shows an apparent dip of about 2 degrees to the NW.  In the top 2 m are some five or so beds of a pale green-grey colour mostly 10 to 20 mm thick although the uppermost bed is nearer 50 mm.  These represent a local chemical reduction of the red ferric oxide which is the cementing agent of the Raglan Mudstone.  Close examination of the red beds reveals numbers of similar grey irregularly shaped "reduction spots" of diameter 20 to 30 mm.  It should be noted that this exposure does not contain any sandstone or calcrete horizons so does not demonstrate the fining upwards cyclothems which are such an important feature of the Raglan Mudstone or its equivalent Ledbury Group in the Church Stretton District to the north. Site is described in detail by Allen (1964) in Sedimentology vol. 3(3) pp. 163-198. Fishmore Road branches off to the north from its junction with the foot of New Lane under the railway bridge.  The quarry face will be seen on the right some 50 m short of the bus depot.  How to access to the actual quarry face cannot be described at the time of this survey since the large floor of the old quarry is currently subject to applications for planning permission for major a housing complex. RIGS Yes. Designation proposed as an exemplary exposure of the argillaceous component of the Raglan Mudstone Formation Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1407 SO 665 743 Barnsland Farm nr Cleobury Mortimer Quarry (active) Silurian; Pridoli Series; Downtonian Stage Borrow pit with spectacular calcrete fabrics colours clay-marl-silt-sand-grit-calcareous conglmerate and possibly fish. 4 m exposure. Also deep gully-head erosion near lustre mottled sandstone RIGS Yes. Borrow pit with spectacular calcrete fabrics Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1408 SJ 489 125 The "Bell-stone" in the precincts of the Morris Hall Bellstone Shrewsbury SY1 1JB Erratic Quaternary; Devensian Glacial erratic of irregular shape 3 feet long and 2 feet wide and about 1 foot thick weighing probably not less than one-third of a ton; has been moved several times within central Shrewsbury. A notable boulder said in Darwin's autobiography to have probably marked a boundary and known as the "Bell-stone". Darwin tells us that while he was at Shrewsbury School at the age of 13 or 14 "an old Mr Cotton [this was the Shropshire naturalist Richard Cotton who died in 1839] in Shropshire who knew a good deal about rocks" pointed out to me "...the 'bell-stone'; he told me that there was no rock of the same kind nearer than Cumberland or Scotland and he solemnly assured me that the world would come to an end before anyone would be able to explain how this stone came where it now lay"! Darwin adds "This produced a deep impression on me and I meditated over this wonderful stone.". Astonishingly high powered discussion and examination of the Bell-stone on Darwin's centenary (1909) by Bonney Watts Harker and Fearnsides in Judd's account of the volume edited by Seward; all six were FGS and were or became Professors and FRS! Concluded that this was a glacial erratic (as realised by Darwin in later life); the rock itself is a much altered andesite and was probably derived from the Arenig district in North Wales or possibly from a point nearer the Welsh Border by glacial action - it is NOT a 'granite' as stated by the plaque (2008)! Permitted access through courtyard of the Morris Hall. RIGS Yes. Historically important site in connection with early influences on Charles Darwin. Mineralogy/Petrology
1409 SJ 715 417 Dorrington Lane nr Woore View Quaternary; Devensian Hummocky moraine thought to coincide with limit of glacial re-advance in Late Devensian. No permanent exposures of glacial sediments but clear manifestation of hummocky terrain including superimposed hummocks; detailed web panorama of temporary exposure at Woore Hall Farm [SJ 721 423] at www.gigapan.org/viewGigapan.php?id=4458. Pronounced proximal slope terrain to north and east with relief up to 15 m [SJ 715 417]; gentler distal slope terrain to south and west [SJ 723 415]. Part of the "Wrexham-Ellesmere-Wem-Whitchurch-Woore" moraine of Clark's Glacial Map of Britain (2004). Public bridleway at end of Dorrington Lane. RIGS Yes. A prominent and characteristic landscape for the extreme northeast of Shropshire. Geomorphology/Landscape
1410 SJ 603 086 Rushton Track/roadside Precambrian: Rushton Schists. Special Sheet 60 - Telford. Exposed in track bed at top of rise on to low hill (possibly downstream edge of glacial roche moutonée) 400 m NW of Rushton village. Exposures of the Rushton Schists are rare and this one is revealed by vehicle erosion across a trackway.  Exposed are thinly laminated fine-grained dark grey foliated schists with visible quartz plagioclase and mica; possibly garnet too.  Distinct lenses of coarsely crystalline pink quartz feldspar gneissose rock giving a migmatitic expression. Foliation very steep inclined; striking approx N-S. Thought to have originally been subducted mudstones subsequently regionally metamorphosed to a medium/high grade ca. 670Ma. Public bridleway between Rushton and Uppington. RIGS Yes. Although a 2D exposure (in trackbed) it is one of very few easily accessible Rushton Schists exposures. The site is easily accessible and exposes the oldest rocks of Shropshire. Mineralogy/Petrology
1411 SO 306 920 Owlbury Bank Quaternary; Devensian Series of seven low circular banks between SO 306 920 and 314 919. Well preserved relict periglacial cryogenic mounds ("mineral palsas") produced by frost growth during retreat of Glacial Lake Camlad-Caebitra accompanied by solifluction of the cores yielding circular ramparts around depressions subsequently infilled by peat. Some of the peat has been worked and the depressions flooded. Beware of soft spots in the host laminated lacustrine silts and clays along the Camlad river to the east of the road and south of Snead Church; these erupt as "mud lumps" which can fluidise. On private meadows to west of minor road; the easternmost palsas can be seen from the roadside. RIGS Yes. These are the best cryogenic mounds ("mineral palsas") in Shropshire. Geomorphology/Landscape
1412 SO 325 903 Upper Heblands Quarry (disused) Silurian intrusion Disused quarry immediately north of farm house; there is a second small disused quarry and field exposures along the low ridge to the northeast. Microgranites intruding Wenlock mudstones. Contact is uneven hornfelsed and brecciated. On private farmland but the Shropshire Way passes 200 m to the southeast RIGS Yes. The only acid igneous Silurian intrusion in Shropshire to reveal the nature of its contact with the country rock. Mineralogy/Petrology
1413 SJ 616 112 Leaton Quarry Quarry (active) Uriconian volcanogenic greywacke Buried sub-glacial channel Working aggregate and tarmac quarry in Precambrian Uriconian. Mostly volcanogenic greywacke (andesitic) but also shatters; alterations; rhyolites. Vestiges of pre-glacial channel in fluvioglacials. Relocated tills in overburden (some still probably available in situ). Working quarry therefore permission required at all times from the Quarry Manager; all visitors must have hard hats and high-vis jackets RIGS Yes. Good exposure of all types of Uriconian (both stronger and weaker); arguably the best place to see the Uriconian. Mineralogy/Petrology
1414 SJ 495 095 Bayston Hill Quarry Quarry (active) Precambrian; Bayston-Oakswood Group plus some Carboniferous Quarry excavated into a ridge underlain by the resistant Longmyndian sediments A huge quarry following the almost vertical beds and strike of the Bayston-Oakswood Group of the Longmyndian greywackes shales and conglomerates. The most valuable for roadstone is the greywacke which has high skid resistance (polished surface value). To the east a quarry extension is being made in order to allow the main quarry to go deeper. This has revealed overlying Coal Measures in part and also glacial drift of sand and gravels.The quarry offers a very long continuous section of the strata which can be viewed in strike section to the north west and across the dip at the north east end.  Strictly only by permission of the owners. High-vis safety wear and hard hats required. Visits must be accompanied by quarry staff. RIGS Yes. Because it provides an awe-inspiring view in three dimensions of the structure of the Longmyndian strata - a clear indication of their folding and jointing visibly heading NE along strike to Haughmond Hill and SW through Lyth Hill to the Long Mynd. To the east the Precambrian/Carboniferous unconformity can be deduced. The track around the SW side offers splendid views down the valley to the Stretton Hills and Longmynd. Structure and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1415 SJ 543 147 Haughmond Quarry Quarry (active) Precambrian; Bayston-Oakswood of the Western Longmyndian Quarried into the flat-topped Haughmond Hill formed on a ridge of NE trending almost vertical resistant sediments  Haughmond is a long (800 m) deep quarry following the strike of the coarser Western Longmyndian sediments amongst which the greywackes have a particularly high skid resistance (polished surface value - PSV). The quarry is now provided with an overview platform from which it is possible to see the workings and appreciate the relationship of the rocks along both the dip and strike faces as well as the more distant views that show the relationship of the site to other Shropshire landmarks. At the south west end there are interesting ice age structures although these will be lost when quarrying extends along the strike in that direction. Access into the main quarry is subject to the usual Health & Safety regulations required for working quarries. However the provision of the viewing platform adjacent to the south eastern boundary and accessed from the popular Forestry Commission footpath makes this an ideal site for displaying and explaing the geology and working of the quarry to the general public and to school groups. RIGS Yes. Recommended because there is such a clear relationship between the quarry and the structure of the strata that are being quarried. There are samples of the rock available for closer examination alongside the adjacent public footpath. Structure and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1416 SJ 272 246 Llynclys Quarry Quarry (active) Carboniferous Limestone; Brigantian Brigantian limestones and intervening lenses of dark clay (possibly volcanic dust trapped in lagoons behind tsunami beaches - DCS; pers. comm.). Regional dip to south east. A good variety of fossiliferous limestones from coarse grained off-shore (with large corals) to fine grained inter-tidal and storm beach rubble mixtures. Most ecent workings and thickest sections to east side. West side mostly restored. Ice wedges from periglacial conditions in Ice Age.  With permission from owners but working quarry Health & Safety applies. RIGS Yes. Recommended because of the exemplary exposure of Carboniferous Limestone Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1417 SO 602 993 Lea Quarry Quarry (disused) Silurian; Much Wenlock Limestone Formation Upper part of dip-slope of Wenlock Edge This huge (2 km long) quarry (comprising Lea Quarry North; Lea Quarry South and Coates Quarry) runs along the strike of the Wenlock Limestone coming to within 10 m in parts of the crest of the Wenlock Edge escarpment. It displays cross-sections of the Reef Knoll formations within clearly bedded limestone including the uppermost strata of crinoidal limestone. The sections at the south west and north east ends clearly show the dip of the limestone. Interbedded with the limestone are beds of bentonite ( just a centimetre or so thick - the result of volcanic dust falls from contemporary volcanoes to the west). These also make the rock susceptible to slippage during wet weather. Fossils are abundant but difficult to extract from the strong limestone. Best preservation is seen where a surface has been overlain by bentonite. De-registered as a working quarry but at time of designation ownership is in negotiation between Bardon Aggregates and the National Trust. RIGS Yes. Recommended because it provides a superb illustration effectively in three dimensions of the highly fossiliferous Wenlock Limestone internationally famous for its fossils and close to the stratotype locality for the Much Wenlock Limestone Formation. Fossils and Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1418 SJ 425 325 Wood Lane Quarry Quarry (active) Quaternary; Devensian superficial deposits Hummocky glaciofluvial landscape A working sand and gravel quarry in Quaternary sediments displaying a wide variety of periglacial and glaciofluvial material. As a working site the detail changes with area of excavation. Restoration in part by backfilling with waste and reseeding. Some remaining as restored pools. Many large boulders giving examples of igneous rocks from Scotland Lake District & North Wales. Pebbly Permo-Trias from more local Cheshire sources. Reflects mixture of both Welsh and Irish Sea ice. Working quarry is area of main geological interst and subject to usual Health & Safety regulations. Some restored parts have more free access by arrangement with SWT and fishing interests. RIGS Yes. Recommended because this is one of very few sites that give a good 3D view of the drift topography of North Shropshire Sedimentology/Stratigraphy
1419 SO 483 774 Bromfield Sand and Gravel Quarry Quarry (active) Quaternary River valley with alluvial flood plain and glaciofluvial terrace The now extensive gravel pits operating both sides of the River Onny display numerous sections depending on the state of current working in the Bromfield Terrace sands and gravels (Rosenbaum; 2007). Sections clearly illustrate the variety of conditions involved in deposition from a braided river system in front of glaciers from the north and west. Patches of clearly current-lain sand are often cross bedded and are interleaved with thicker beds of very coarse gravel and conglomerate with an imbricated texture. The pebbles and boulders of these coarse beds clearly reflect the route of the glaciers involved. The largest boulders are mostly of stronger rock from a greater distance - North Wales or Lake District volcanic and igneous rocks; but a significant number are of large well rounded or elliptical boulders which have survived the short distance from the Llandovery (Pentamerus sandstone / "Government Rock") outcrops in the Plowden Gorge at the southern end of the Long Mynd or of Horderley Sandstone from the same area. The pre-quarrying state of the River Onny is preserved between the eastern and western areas of working. The geomorphology of the river with its meanders flood plain and terrace can be clearly seen. There is no general public access since this is a registered working quarry. However the company readily gives permission for geological group visits subject to the usual considerations of appropriate dress and Health & Safety. RIGS Yes. Recommended because this is an excellent site for basic rock type identification as well as the more detailed lessons on terrace structure. Sedimentology/Stratigraphy

 
 

 

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